Sterfte en oversterfte in 2020 en 2021

Bijlage 1. Referenties

Aleem A, Nadeem AJ. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT). 2021 Jul 18. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan–. PMID: 34033367.

Andrews, N., Tessier, E., Stowe, J., Gower, C., Kirsebom, F., Simmons, R., ... & Lopez Bernal, J. (2022). Duration of Protection against Mild and Severe Disease by Covid-19 Vaccines. New England Journal of Medicine. 386(4):340-350.

Bland JM, Altman DG (2000). The odds ratio. BMJ 2000; 320(7247): 1468.

Brooks EG, Reed KD. Principles and Pitfalls: a Guide to Death Certification. Clin Med Res. 2015; 13:74-82. doi: 10.3121/cmr.2015.1276.

Bijwerkingencentrum Lareb (Lareb) (2022). Overlijdens na Covid-19 vaccinatie.

CBS (2020a). Hoogste coronasterfte tijdens de eerste golf in zuiden van Nederland. Nieuwsbericht, 26 november 2020.

CBS (2020b). Tijdens hittegolf vooral meer sterfte in langdurige zorg. Nieuwsbericht, 28 augustus 2020.

CBS (2021). In tweede golf overleden bijna 11 duizend meer mensen dan verwacht. Nieuwsbericht, 9 juli 2021.

CBS (2022a). Korte onderzoeksbeschrijving Prognose.

CBS (2022b). Korte onderzoeksbeschrijving Bevolkingsstatistiek.

CBS (2022c). Korte onderzoeksbeschrijving Doodsoorzakenstatistiek.

CBS (2022d). Sterfte per week.

CBS (2022e). 10 procent meer mensen overleden dan verwacht in 2021. Nieuwbericht, 26 januari 2022.

CBS (2022f). Nieuwe indeling bevolking naar herkomst. Vervanging van indeling naar migratieachtergrond en westers/niet-westers.

CBS en RIVM (2022). Eindrapportage onderzoek Oversterfte. Bevindingen van Traject 2 van het ZonMw onderzoeksprogramma Oversterfte.

Cho SI, Yoon S, Lee H-J (2021). Impact of comorbidity burden on mortality in patients with COVID-19 using the Korean health insurance database. Scientific Reports 2021; 11(1): 6375.

Coronadashboard (2022). Ziekenhuisopnames.

Coronadashboard (2022b). Sterfte.

COVID-19 Excess Mortality Collaborators (2022). Estimating excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic analysis of COVID-19-related mortality, 2020–21. The Lancet, 20 maart 2022.

Cube, M von, Timsit J-F, Kammerlander A, Schumacher M (2021). Quantifying and communicating the burden of COVID-19. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021; 21(1): 164.

EuroMOMO (2022). European mortality monitoring activity.

Eurostat (2022). Excess mortality – statistics.

Ge E, Li Y, Wu S, Candido E, Wei X (2021). Association of pre-existing comorbidities with mortality and disease severity among 167,500 individuals with COVID-19 in Canada: A population-based cohort study. PLoS One 2021; 16(10): e0258154.

Giattino, C., H. Ritchie, M. Roser, E. Ortiz-Ospina and J. Hasell (2022). Excess mortality during the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19).

Grippo F, Navarra S, Oris C, et al (2020) The Role of COVID-19 in the Death of SARS-CoV-2–Positive Patients: A Study Based on Death Certificates. Lancet (preprint), available at: Accessed 20 Nov. 2020

Haas, E.J., Angulo, F.J., McLaughlin, J.M., Anis, E., Singer, S.R., Khan, F., ... & Alroy-Preis, S. (2021). Impact and effectiveness of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 cases, hospitalisations, and deaths following a nationwide vaccination campaign in Israel: an observational study using national surveillance data. The Lancet, 397(10287), 1819-1829.

Harteloh, P.P.M. (2017). Veranderingen in de doodsoorzakenstatistiek 2013–2015. Den Haag: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.

Harteloh P. (2020). The implementation of an automated coding system for cause-of-death statistics. Informatics for Health and Social Care 2020; 45(1): 1-14.

HMD (2022). The Human Mortality Database.

Husby, T., L. Stoeldraijer en H. Visser (2020). Oversterfte tijdens de corona-epidemie: toepassing van een dynamisch regressiemodel. Statistische Trends, 29 juli 2020.

INED. Institut National d'études Démographiques (2009) Guidelines for the computation of the standard MCOD indicators. Paris: INED

Islam, N., V.M. Shkolnikov, R.J. Acosta, I. Klimkin, I. Kawachi, R.A. Irizarry, et al. (2021). Excess deaths associated with covid-19 pandemic in 2020: age and sex disaggregated time series analysis in 29 high income countries. BMJ; 373 :n1137.

Juyal D, Kumar A, Pal S, Thaledi S, Jauhari S, Thawani V. Medical certification of cause of death during COVID-19 pandemic - a challenging scenario. J Family Med Prim Care. 2020; 9:5896-5898. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1435_20.

Karlinsky, A. en D. Kobak (2021). Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic with the World Mortality Dataset, eLife.

Kassambara, A., Kosinski, M., Biecek, P. en Fabian, S. (2021). survminer: Drawing Survival Curves using 'ggplot2'. Geraadpleegd april 2022. Versie 0.4.9.

Kunst, A., M. Visser, L. Stoeldraijer en C. Harmsen (2020). Oversterfte tijdens de eerste zes weken van de corona-epidemie: sociaal-demografische en geografische verschillen. Statistische Trends, 15 mei 2020.

Li J., Huang D.Q., Zou B., et al. (2021). Epidemiology of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes. J Med Virol. 93:1449-1458. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26424.).

Licher S, Heshmatollah A, van der Willik KD, et al. Lifetime risk and multimorbidity of non-communicable diseases and disease-free life expectancy in the general population: A population-based cohort study. PLoS Med 2019; 16(2): e1002741.

Malesza, M., Bozym. M. (2021). Factors influencing COVID-19 vaccination uptake in an elderly sample in Poland. MedRxiv. Preprint. doi:

Mansournia MA, Altman DG. Population attributable fraction (2018). BMJ 2018; 360: k757.

McGivern L, Shulman L, Carney JK, Shapiro S, Bundock E. Death Certification Errors and the Effect on Mortality Statistics. Public Health Rep. 2017;132 :669-675. doi: 10.1177/0033354917736514.

Mitratza M, Kunst AE, Harteloh PPM, Nielen MMJ, Klijs B (2020) Prevalence of diabetes mellitus at the end of life: An investigation using individually linked cause-of-death and medical register data. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 160:108003. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108003. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 31911247

Nafilyan, V., Bermingham, C., Ward, I. L., Morgan, J., Zaccardi, F., Khunti, K., ... & Banerjee, A. (2022). Risk of death following SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination in young people in England: a self-controlled case series study. medRxiv. doi:

Nepomuceno, M.R., I. Klimkin, D.A. Jdanov, A. Alustiza Galarza en V. Shkolnikov (2021). Sensitivity of excess mortality due to the COVID-19 pandemic to the choice of the mortality index, method, reference period, and the time unit of the death series. medRxiv 2021.07.20.21260869.

Nunes, B., Rodrigues, A. P., Kislaya, I., Cruz, C., Peralta-Santos, A., Lima, J., ... & Machado, A. (2021). mRNA vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19-related hospitalisations and deaths in older adults: a cohort study based on data linkage of national health registries in Portugal, February to August 2021. Eurosurveillance, 26(38), 2100833.

Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S (2020) Case-Fatality Rate and Characteristics of Patients Dying in Relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA 323:1775-1781.

Pálinkás, A., & Sándor, J. (2022) All-Cause-Mortality by COVID-19 Vaccination Status in Hungary: Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Investigation. Pre-print beschikbaar via:

Perry, M., Akbari, A., Cottrell, S., Gravenor, M. B., Roberts, R., Lyons, R. A., Bedston, S., Torabi, F., & Griffiths, L. (2021). Inequalities in coverage of COVID-19 vaccination: A population register based cross-sectional study in Wales, UK. Vaccine, 39(42), 6256–6261.

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (2021). Annual report Surveillance of COVID-19, influenza and other respiratory infections in the Netherlands: winter 2020/2021. Rapport 2021-0133, 15 september 2021.

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (2021b). Effectiviteit van COVID-19 vaccinatie tegen ziekenhuis- en intensive-care-opname in Nederland.

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM)  (2022a). Monitoring sterftecijfers Nederland.

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (2022b). Bescherming coronavaccins tegen ziekenhuisopname. Geraadpleegd 16 mei 2022.

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (2022c). Varianten van het coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Geraadpleegd 16 mei 2022.

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (2022d). Effectiviteit van COVID-19 vaccinatie tegen ziekenhuis- en intensive-care-opname in Nederland.

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (2022e). Bijwerkingen van de COVID-19-vaccins. Geraadpleegd 16 mei 2022.

Sánchez van Kammen M, Aguiar de Sousa D, Poli S, et al. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Nov 1;78(11):1314-1323. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.3619. PMID: 34581763; PMCID: PMC8479648.

Schürmann, R., J. van der Toorn, L. Stoeldraijer (2022). Ontwikkelingen in sterfte in 2020 en 2021. Longread, 16 februari 2022.

Shrotri, M., Krutikov, M., Palmer, T., Giddings, R., Azmi, B., Subbarao, S., ... & Shallcross, L. (2021). Vaccine effectiveness of the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 against SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents of long-term care facilities in England (VIVALDI): a prospective cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 21(11), 1529-1538.

Stoeldraijer, L., C. van Duin en F. Janssen (2013). Bevolkingsprognose 2012–2060: model en veronderstellingen betreffende de sterfte. Bevolkingstrends, 27 juni 2013.

Stoeldraijer, L., C. van duin en C. Huisman (2019). Kernprognose 2019–2060: 19 miljoen inwoners in 2039. Statistische Trends, 17 december 2019).

Stoeldraijer, L. en C. Harmsen (2020). Verschil sterfte naar geslacht tijdens eerste vijf weken corona-epidemie. Statistische Trends, 8 mei 2020.

Stoeldraijer, L. (2020a). De invloed van corona op onze levensverwachting. Statistische Trends, 25 september 2020.

Stoeldraijer, L. (2020b). Sterfte en levensverwachting in de 21ste eeuw: waarom veranderde de trend rond 2012? Statistische Trends, 25 september 2020.

Stoeldraijer, L., S. de Regt, C. van Duin, C. Huisman en S. te Riele (2020). Bevolkingsprognose 2020-2070: bevolking groeit langzamer door corona. Statistische Trends, 16 december 2020.

Stoeldraijer, L., T. Traag en C. Harmsen (2021). Oversterfte tijdens eerste golf corona-epidemie bijna dubbel zo hoog als tijdens griepepidemie. Statistische Trends, 21 mei 2021.

Stoeldraijer, L., A. Kunst, F. Chilunga en C. Harmsen (2022). Sociaal-demografische verschillen in COVID-19-sterfte in het eerste jaar van de coronapandemie. Statistische Trends, 29 maart 2022.

Tang, F., Hammel, I.S., Andrew, M.K., & Ruiz, J.G (2022). Vaccine Effectiveness Against All-Cause Death Varies According to Frailty Status in Veterans with SARS-CoV-2 Infection During the Delta Surge. Pre-print beschikbaar via

Tenforde, M.W., Self, W.H., Gaglani, M., Ginde, A.A., Douin, D.J., Talbot, H.K., ... & Network, I.V.Y. (2022). Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccination in Preventing COVID-19–Associated Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Death—United States, March 2021–January 2022. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 71(12), 459.

Tessier, E., Rai, Y., Clarke, E., Lakhani, A., Tsang, C., Makwana, A., Heard, H., Rickeard, T., Lakhani, S., Roy, P., Edelstein, M., Ramsay, M., Lopez-Bernal, J., White, J., Andrews, N., Campbell, C., & Stowe, J. (2022). Characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake among adults aged 50 years and above in England (8 December 2020-17 May 2021): a population-level observational study. BMJ open, 12(3), e055278.

The Economist (2022). Tracking covid-19 excess deaths across countries.

Traag, T. en J. Hoogenboezem (2021). Doodsoorzaken 2000-2020: verschuivingen in de meestvoorkomende groepen doodsoorzaken tijdens de coronapandemie. Statistische Trends, 18 augustus 2021.

Visser, M., A. Kunst, L. Stoeldraijer en C. Harmsen (2021). Sociaal-demografische verschillen in COVID-19-sterfte tijdens de eerste golf van de corona-epidemie. Statistische Trends, 23 maart 2021.

WHO (2016). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision. Volume 2 (Instruction manual). Geneva: WHO

WHO (2020). International guidelines for certification and classification (coding) of COVID-19 as cause of death, 20 April 2020.

WHO (2021). WHO COVID-19 Excess Mortality Estimation Methodology. Executive summary. Technical document, 7 oktober 2021.

WHO (2022). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD).

WHO (2022). Updates 3 & 4 in relation to COVID-19 coding in ICD-10. (Geraadpleegd 28 maart 2022).

Xu, S., Huang, R., Sy, L.S., Glenn, S.C., Ryan, D.S., Morrissette, K., ... & Qian, L.. COVID-19 Vaccination and Non–COVID-19 Mortality Risk—Seven Integrated Health Care Organizations, United States, December 14, 2020–July 31, 2021. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(43), 1520.

Zheng Z, Peng F, Xu B, et al (2020) Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Infect 81:16-25.