Research and development; expenditure and funding per implementation sector

Tabeltoelichting


This table contains figures regarding expenditure on and financing of Research and Development (R&D) activities that are conducted with own or external personnel. Additionally figures are available regarding expenditure on R&D activities that are outsourced abroad.

The figures are provided for the following sectors:
- businesses
- institutions
- institutes of higher education.

Data available from: 2013

Status of the figures:
The data regarding 2013-2018 are definitive and the data regarding 2019 are provisional.

Changes as of 13 July 2021:
The figures about the year 2018 wrongly already had the status definitive. However, new and previously missing information has become available for the higher education sector. As a result, the figures about 2018 need to be adjusted slightly. It concerns a minimal adjustment of less than 1 percent and has now been incorporated in the figures. Additionally, the provisional figures about 2019 have been published.

When will new figures be published?
In the fourth quarter of 2021 provisional figures about 2020 will be published.

Toelichting onderwerpen

Expenditure on in-house R&D activities
Total
Total expenditure on in-house R&D activities, in millions of euros.
Source of financing
Businesses
The actual transactor in the production process, characterised by self-sufficiency with respect to the decisions about that process and by offering its products to third parties.

This definition, in particular the self-sufficiency element, allows for a business to include more than one branch, but also more than one legal entity. This is the case when the separate branches or legal entities do not operate independently. Conversely, various sections may be discerned within a single legal entity, which operate independently in terms of production. On the basis of the definition, then, these sections constitute businesses in themselves. This last point mainly applies to larger concerns with diverse activities. When an entity so defined is active in different countries, for the purposes of national statistics the Dutch section is treated as a self-contained business.

In official Statistics Netherlands terminology, the company as defined here is known as a "business unit" (BU), in order to prevent confusion with the term "business" used in general terminology - which is, for these purposes, too imprecise.

The statistical unit of a business is an approximation of the kind-of-activity unit, as defined by Eurostat. This definition combines two requirements which may be in conflict: contribution to a single activity versus correlation with one or more operational units. When operationalising the statistical unit of a business, the Netherlands prioritises the second requirement.
Government
Government funding for R&D consists of the following components:
- funds obtained from public research institutions;
- funds obtained from central government and local authorities, for example for contract research;
- funds obtained from the Dutch Research Council (NWO) (for example, competitive research funding for the higher education sector);
- lump sum financing from the government (for example government funding from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science to the higher education sector).
Higher education
Education as recorded in the Higher Education and Scientific Research Act (Wet op het hoger onderwijs en wetenschappelijk onderzoek, WHW).

Higher education includes higher professional education (hbo) and university education (wo).
Private non-profit organisations
R&D funding by private non-profit organisations consists of funds obtained from organisations in the private sector that are considered not-for-profit. Predominantly charities, based in the Netherlands, that raise funds and mainly act as financier of research. Including donations and legacies.
Abroad
Total abroad
Businesses, international organizations, research institutions, higher education institutions and other organizations that are located abroad. These can also be abroad located subsidiaries of a multinational corporation. The European Union is also considered to be foreign.
Businesses abroad
Businesses located abroad. These can also be abroad located subsidiaries of a multinational corporation.
Other abroad
International organizations, public research institutions, higher education institutions and other organizations that are located abroad. The European Union is also counted as part of the category other abroad.
Type of cost
Current costs
These gross wages including pension contributions, social contributions and any additional benefits. In addition, these are costs for small tools, rental costs, maintenance of laboratories, scientific literature, computer rental time, insurance, energy, water and possible travel costs.
R&D investments
Investments in buildings, laboratories, land, equipment and other fixed assets for R&D.
Expenditure R&D outsourced abroad
Total expenditure on R&D activities that are outsourced to businesses and institutions located abroad, in millions of euros.