Research and development; key figures per implementation sector

Research and development; key figures per implementation sector

R&D; sectors Periods R&D personnel Employed persons (number) R&D personnel Years of work (number) Expenditure on R&D Expenditure R&D on in-house activities (million euro) Expenditure on R&D R&D intensity (%) Enterprises with in-house R&D activities (number)
All sectors 2013 195,127 135,555 14,239 2.16 20,135
All sectors 2014 194,942 136,174 14,595 2.17 20,341
All sectors 2015 202,501 139,382 14,808 2.15 20,260
All sectors 2016 207,461 144,482 15,235 2.15 20,674
All sectors 2017** 209,488 150,399 16,081 2.18 19,957
All sectors 2018** 216,994 156,875 16,554 2.14 19,554
All sectors 2019* 223,763 160,234 17,524 2.16 19,951
Businesses 2013 146,165 95,108 9,299 1.41 19,692
Businesses 2014 144,689 94,612 9,444 1.41 19,877
Businesses 2015 151,385 97,443 9,515 1.38 19,798
Businesses 2016 157,018 102,614 10,008 1.41 20,159
Businesses 2017** 157,844 107,496 10,667 1.45 19,484
Businesses 2018** 164,144 112,807 10,998 1.42 19,031
Businesses 2019* 169,853 115,795 11,847 1.46 19,421
Institutions 2013 11,322 8,116 848 0.13 380
Institutions 2014 11,577 8,325 889 0.13 401
Institutions 2015 12,128 8,335 900 0.13 399
Institutions 2016 12,019 8,568 923 0.13 452
Institutions 2017** 12,121 8,553 907 0.12 410
Institutions 2018** 12,899 9,326 971 0.13 461
Institutions 2019* 13,560 9,339 1,002 0.12 468
Higher education 2013 37,640 32,331 4,092 0.62 63
Higher education 2014 38,676 33,237 4,262 0.63 63
Higher education 2015 38,988 33,604 4,393 0.64 63
Higher education 2016 38,424 33,300 4,304 0.61 63
Higher education 2017** 39,522 34,350 4,506 0.61 63
Higher education 2018** 39,951 34,742 4,585 0.59 62
Higher education 2019* 40,350 35,100 4,675 0.58 62
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description

This table contains data of R&D personnel and R&D expenditure on in-house research and development activities.
The figures are provided for the following sectors:
- businesses
- institutions
- institutes of higher education
The R&D is implemented with in-house and/or hired personnel in the Netherlands. Outsourced R&D is not included in this table.

Data available from 2013

Status of the figures:
The data regarding 2013-2016 are definitive and the data for 2017-2019 are provisional. The status of the figures is related to the status of figures for the gross domestic product (GDP). Until the GDP figures are definitive, the R&D intensity can be adjusted.

Changes as of 2 November 2020:
The provisional figures about 2019 have been added.

Changes as of 21 October 2019:
The figures for enterprises with in-house R&D activities were not correct in the previous version. This has been corrected in this version.

When will new figures be published?
Mid-2021 the figures about 2017, 2018 and 2019 will be updated.

Description topics

R&D personnel
The personnel deployed for in-house R&D activities, expressed in numbers of working persons and years of work.
Employed persons
Someone working for a company located in the Netherlands, or an institution or private household in the Netherlands.

Persons employed are all persons having paid jobs, even for only one or some hours a week, and even if they:
- work legally as such, but without registration for income tax and social security (“undeclared work”);
- are temporarily not at work, but have continued receipt of wages or salary (for instance owing to illness or hold-ups due to frost);
are on a temporary unpaid-leave.

In order to be included in the R&D personnel a person employed needs to spend at least 0,1 FTE annually on R&D related activities.
Years of work
A benchmark for the volume of work, calculated by converting all jobs (full and part time) into full-time jobs, also known as full-time equivalent (FTE).

In this way, when taken together, the volume of work of two half jobs (0.5 FTE each) totals one year of work.
Expenditure on R&D
Expenditure on in-house R&D activities, expressed in millions of euros and as a percentage of the GDP (gross domestic product).
Expenditure R&D on in-house activities
R&D intensity
Expenditure on in-house R&D activities expressed as a percentage of the GDP (gross domestic product).
The R&D intensity is subject to adjustment until the gross domestic product is definitive.
Enterprises with in-house R&D activities
The statistical unit of the EU’s production system, comprising the smallest combination of legal units (or their equivalent). This is an organisational unit which produces goods and services and which has a certain level of independent decision-making authority, especially with respect to the use of its current assets. It may comprise one or more legal units and carry out one or more activities at one or more locations.

The way it presents itself, in the context of the prevailing economic realities, causes us to view the enterprise as an organisational unit.
It is the basis for the formation of the business unit, branch and local business unit.

The enterprise is an economic entity in which various legal units may come together under certain circumstances. Particular legal units carry out their activities exclusively on behalf of another legal entity and their existence is exclusively due to administrative (for example fiscal) factors, while from an economic standpoint they are not significant. This category also includes many of the legal units which have no staff. In many cases, the activities of these legal units should be viewed as supplementary activities alongside the activities of the legal mother unit on which they depend and to which they should be linked in order to form the unit of “enterprise” used for the economic analysis.

Research & Development (R&D)
Activity which strives for originality and innovation and consists of creatively, systematically and methodically seeking solutions to practical problems. The activity also includes strategic and fundamental research, which prioritises the acquisition of background knowledge and the increase of (pure) scientific knowledge and does not prioritise direct economic advantage or the resolution of problems. The activity is also considered to include the (further) development of ideas or prototypes into usable processes and production-ready products.

The following are NOT counted as R&D:
- the routine collection of or research into information, carrying out measurements or monitoring;
- the use or marginal improvement of existing methods or models for ends such as market research or socio-demographic issues;
- education and training;
- activities related to patents and licences;
- operationalising technology or advanced (production) equipment that has been purchased;
- rewriting existing software and/or making software which is already available on the market client-specific;
- industrial design, unless there is a systematic desire for ergonomic enhancements.