Dutch exports of goods strongly EU oriented

© © Z.ePhotography

Croatia joined the EU on 1 July. How have Dutch exports to other
new EU countries developed since their accession? And to what extent are Dutch exports overall oriented to the EU?

  Netherland and Croatia



Exports to more recent EU members have grown much faster than those to other countries �

... but these new members still account for only a small part of total exports�.

  Export to recent EU members


�and over half of the growth of exports to the 12 new member countries is accounted for by exports to Poland and the Czech Republic.   Poland and Czech Republic


The relatively low value of Dutch exports to new member countries is related to distance and the size of the economies concerned, both very important determinants in international trade of goods.
The Netherlands trades intensively with large neighbouring economies, for example, while only 0.1% of exports go to Croatia�
  Export value to countries


� and two-thirds of Dutch exports go to the 14 countries that have been EU members the longest, many of which are located close to the Netherlands and have large economies. However, countries outside the EU are becoming increasingly important for the Netherlands ...   Export to countries


.�which is consistent with the higher economic growth rates outside the EU.   Economic growth outside EU
In spite of this, the Netherlands - the second largest exporter in the EU � is still more EU-oriented than most other member countries�

�and that is because a
considerable part of Dutch exports to the EU consist of re-exports. Other countries re-export much less to the EU than the Netherlands.
  Netherlands within Europe


Re-exports generate relatively little for the Dutch economy, but if they are not taken into account, the Netherlands still exports more to EU countries than other countries. As a result, exports to the EU earn more for the Dutch economy than exports to non-EU countries.   EU Re-exports


Total Dutch exports of goods account for 20.5% of GDP. Together with exports of services this rises to 31.5%.   Export of goods and GDP


Authors: Pascal Ramaekers, Ralph Wijnen, Fintan van Berkel and Frans Duijsings; Illustrations: Frédérik Ruys.