Government and politics

Government and politics

In the first six months of 2019, the government had a budget surplus of 14 bn euros, as revenues increased more rapidly than expenditure.

In 2018 defence expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP amounted to 1.2 percent. Government expenditure on defecen rose by over 0.5 billion to 9.1 billion euros.

The largest gas field in Europe was discovered near Slochteren (Groningen) on 29 May 1959, this gave natural gas a vital role in the Dutch energy supply.

Around 13.5 million inhabitants of the Netherlands are eligible to vote in the upcoming European Parliament elections. Of this group, 3.6 percent do not hold the Dutch nationality but do have EU citizenship.

Young people aged 15 to 17 years have little interest in politics. They become more interested when turning 18.

The majority of Dutch adults are satisfied with their lives. Nearly six in ten adults are also optimistic about the current state of affairs in the Netherlands.

The Dutch government achieved an 11 billion euro budget surplus in 2018, equivalent to 1.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Government debt declined, just as in previous years, and stood at 52.4 percent of GDP by the end of 2018.

Last year, more than six in ten Dutch people aged 15 and up indicated they trusted other people, a share similar to that in 2017.

Government revenues in the first three quarters of 2018 exceeded expenditure by almost 12 billion euros.

Government revenues were nearly 5 billion euros higher in the first six months of 2018 than in the same period last year. This resulted in a year-on-year increase in the budget surplus, equivalent to 1.9 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), measured from Q3 2017 up to and including Q2 2018.

The Netherlands ten years after the onset of the global credit crisis. Developments in unemployment, GDP, labour participation, housing market, social assistance benefits, debt liabilities and other indicators, together providing a comprehensive picture of the situation before, during and after the crisis.

In 2017, raising the statutory pension (AOW) entitlement age resulted in savings of approximately 1.7 billion euros. The situation after raising the entitlement age is compared with the entitlement age still being 65 years; indirect effects are not taken into account.

For the first time since 2008. Dutch public finances comply with the European standards.

Higher educated people are generally more interested in politics.

Developments in government finance in Q2 2017.

For the first time in six years, government debt falls below 60 percent of GDP (EMU target).

The Sustainability Monitor 2017 was presented to the Dutch House of Representatives on 17 May.

The Netherlands has a budget surplus of nearly 3 bn euros for the first time since the global financial crisis.

The Dutch Cabinet has commissioned CBS to compile an annual Monitor of well-being.

The Netherlands is relatively the largest net contributor to the UK.

Women work fewer hours, earn lower incomes. More women in top civil sector and commercial sector positions.

The burden imposed by taxes and social security contributions has grown in recent years to 37.8 percent of GDP in 2015.

Last 4 November, Statistics Netherlands published an exploratory report on the measurement of SDGs for the Netherlands

Government revenues were nearly 7 bn euros higher in the first six months of 2016 than in the same period last year.

The purchasing power of the Dutch population improved 1.1 percent last year.

Big data and methodological challenges

percentage of people who have successfully completed tertiary-level education

The public deficit and public debt (as a percentage of GDP) both declined in Q1 2016.

The Netherlands’ general government deficit in 2015 came out at 1.8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).

After the first three quarters of 2015, the public deficit amounted to 1.7 percent of GDP on an annual basis. Public debt was reduced to 66.3 percent of GDP.

In 2014 public expenditure on defence declined by 191 million euros to 7.4 billion euros. Dutch defence expenditure has shown a downward trend for the past five years, in spite of a slight increase in expenditure in 2013. Defence expenditure has shown a decline of 1.1 billion euros since 2009.

Dutch state pension (AOW) entitlement nearly doubled between 2008 and 2014 and by far exceed entitlement to the supplementary employee pension schemes.

In recent years, Dutch voters have been anxious about finances and the economy, but they also think their culture is under threat, according to a publication presented today by Statistics Netherlands s about the National Voters Survey 2006-2012.

Nearly four in ten Dutch people undertake political activities other than voting in an election. The share of politically active people varies between regions, but is overall significantly lower than in Germany.

Over two-thirds of the income of Dutch municipalities in 2013 came from central government. Eleven percent of their income came from local taxes. Revenues from local taxes are much lower in the Netherlands than in many other European countries, while Dutch local authorities are responsible for a large number of policy implementation tasks.

The Dutch government expects to receive 5.5 billion euros in revenues from motor vehicle tax in 2015. This tax, also known as road tax, consists of two parts. The largest part, nearly 4 billion euros, will go to central government. Just over 1.5 billion euros will be paid to provincial government.

By the end of 2013 the Dutch government provided for 46 billion euros worth of debt guarantees for loans. Nearly 39 billion euros of these debt guarantees > were made available by the central government whereas local government acted as debt guarantor for over 7.5 billion euros.

We use statistics to build up our knowledge about society. This is an age-old idea of what statistics are for. In the words of Jan Ackersdyck, professor of statistics in Utrecht in the mid-19th century, statistics is the knowledge of true facts of great importance which should serve as a basis for measures which affect the welfare of citizens. He already recognised the role that statistics would later officially play: collecting facts as a basis for legislation and policymaking.

Dutch central government paid just over 10.4 billion euros in income-related allowances for housing, health care and children in 2013. Spending on care allowances, in particular, rose, to 5.1 billion euros, while spending on childcare allowances fell to 1.9 billion euros. The sum spent on rent allowances rose by 6 percent, to 2.4 billion euros; child budget payments remained stable at 0.9 billion euros.

According to figures published by Statistics Netherlands today, spending on state old-age pensions has risen by nearly a quarter since 2008, to 32.7 billion euros in 2013. By the end of 2013, over 3.2 million people in the Netherlands were receiving a state old-age pension. One in ten of them live outside the Netherlands.

Last year, more than six in every ten over-15s indicated to have confidence in the military, i.e. slightly more than in 2012. People have more confidence in police and judiciary, but less confidence in other institutions.

The most recent calculations made by Statistics Netherlands indicate that last year’s public deficit and public debt are in fact lower than the first estimate dating back to March suggested. In the current calculation, the nationalisation of SNS REAAL is incorporated in the deficit in a different manner, new international guidelines are applied and the most recent data available are used.

Share of women in European Parliament and national parliaments Key words: Summary: The share of women in the European Parliament has risen steadily in recent decades. In 1979, when direct voting for the European Parliament began, 16 percent of European Parliament members were women. In the present parliament this is 36 percent.

With 2.4 percent, the interest rate on the public debt reached a historically low level in 2013. Although public debt is growing, the interest paid over the public debt is diminishing.

Figures released by Statistics Netherlands today show that Dutch government deficit amounted to 2.5 percent of GDP in 2013. This puts it below the European norm of 3 percent for the first time in five years. In 2012, the deficit still amounted to 4.1 percent. The government debt of the Netherlands rose by 2.2 percentage points in 2013, to 73.5 percent of GDP, well over the European limit of 60 percent.

Municipal authorities expect to receive 660 million euros in parking fees this year, i.e. 15 million euros more than in 2013 and 94 million euros more than in 2010.

The number of supermarkets and department stores grew substantially in large municipalities in the Netherlands between 2008 and 2013, but declined in the smallest municipalities. Consumer electronics shops closed down almost everywhere, in particular in smaller municipalities.

The overall EMU deficit of local governments for 2014 is estimated at 3.7 billion euros, 0.6 billion euros above the norm as previously agreed upon.

Statistics Netherlands (CBS) publishes the tax revenues of the Dutch government on a quarterly basis.

Based on local government budgets for 2014, Statistics Netherlands has calculated that Dutch local authorities can expect to receive 12.8 billion euros in local taxes and levies this year.

In 2014, provincial authorities expect to receive 1.5 billion euros from the surcharge on road tax, i.e. 68 million euros more than in 2013.

Mid-2013, the overall municipal debt in the Netherlands was nearly 51 billion euros. The municipal debt has grown for the sixth year in a row.

With 2.5 percent of GDP, the public deficit over the period July 2012-June 2013 was far below the EU ceiling of 3 percent. The deficit over the entire year 2012 was 4.1 percent of GDP.

This year’s municipal spending on arts and culture is anticipated to total nearly 1.7 billion euros, 3.7 percent down from 2012. The per capita amount is reduced from 103 to 98 euros.

Taxes imposed by water board authorities are higher for owner-occupants than for tenants and the gap has widened in 2013. Home-owning multi-person households on average pay 319 euros in 2013, i.e. 35 percent more than multi-person households living in rental homes.

In 2013, tourist tax is anticipated to put 162 million euros in the municipal coffers, i.e. an increase by 36 percent relative to 2008. The higher revenue is mainly due to higher rates.

In the first quarter of 2013, the Dutch government has realised a surplus, predominantly due to the one-off revenue from the auction of telecom frequencies. The nationalisation of SNS REAAL does not affect the government balance sheet. The public deficit over the past four quarters has fallen to 2.9 percent of the GDP.

The majority of Dutch aged 18 years and older are in favour of preserving the mortgage interest relief scheme, but the group of opponents is growing.

The Netherlands was the second most prosperous country in the European Union (EU) in 2011 after Luxembourg. Bulgaria and Romania are the least prosperous countries in the EU. Relative to 1995, the prosperity gap between the various EU countries has narrowed.

The average burden of taxes and social insurance contributions in the European Union (EU) was 39 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, but there are considerable differences between the various EU member states.

Municipal spending exceeded 52 billion euros in 2012, i.e. nearly 1 billion euros down from 2011. Municipal spending declined for the third year in a row and was 3.8 billion below the level of 2009.

The Dutch population thinks the government should play a more active role in various areas of society. Especially when it comes to taking care of people who are not at all or to a lesser degree able to take care of themselves, e.g. disabled and older people

In 2012 the Dutch government deficit shrank to 4.1 percent of GDP while government debt rose to 71.2 percent of GDP. The Dutch government deficit and debt have now exceeded the European norms for the fourth year in a row.

The total anticipated deficit of municipalities, provinces and water boards for 2013 amounts to 4.1 billion euros and is far beyond the previously agreed limit.

These are various conclusions presented in the National Voters Survey (NKO) (SKON), shortly after the Dutch Lower House elections. The first results are now available.

Local authorities in the Netherlands expect to receive 12.5 billion euro in local taxes in 2013. This is 2.6 percent more than in 2012.

The twelve Dutch provinces expect to collect 1,451 million euro from the surcharge on motor vehicle tax in 2013. This is 5 million less than in 2012. It will be the first time that revenues from this provincial surtax decrease since its introduction in 1981.

Municipal taxes and levies have become an important source of income for Dutch municipalities in the last fifty years. Per capita revenues from taxes and levies increased from nearly 9 euro in 1960 to 474 euro in 2010.

The Dutch government paid 4.7 billion euro in care allowances in 2011, nearly 0.9 billion more than one year previously. The increase is related to an increase in the standard premium for health care insurance. Just over six in ten households received a care allowance last year.

The Dutch municipalities together spent nearly 173 million euro on maintaining and managing municipal cemeteries and performing other burial tasks in 2010. The revenues amounted to over 120 million euro.

Property tax (OZB) was raised by more than 5 percent in 227 Dutch municipalities in 2012 relative to 2011, while only 3 municipalities lowered them.

By the end of June this year, the public deficit of the Netherlands was 4.2 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), i.e. 25 billion euro on an annual basis. The current deficit is marginally below the level of 4.5 percent at the end of 2011. Public debt increased to 68.2 percent of the GDP. As yet, public deficit and public debt do not meet the European budget standards.

In 2010, the Dutch government spent nearly 1.3 billion euro on actions to address climate change. Important in this respect are energy-saving projects and the promotion of renewable energy sources, like wind energy.

Public expenditure on defence declined by 1.8 percent last year from 8.3 to 8.1 billion euro. The decline in 2010 was 3.6 percent.

The costs of long-term care provided under the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act (AWBZ) have risen continually in recent years but revenues fell short. The deficit amounted to 3.3 billion euro in 2011. For the third consecutive year the deficit exceeded 3 billion euro.

Municipalities spent more than 1.9 billion euro of the proceeds of Nuon and Essent share sales to invest in projects. This is more than 60 percent of the first 3.2 billion paid in municipal bank accounts.

Last year, 206 thousand new passenger cars were sold which were exempt from BPM (tax on new passenger cars and motorcycles), i.e. more than 3.5 times as many as in 2009. Government revenues from BPM were reduced by 1.3 billion euro relative to 2008.

According to figures released today, Dutch government deficit amounted to 4.7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011.

Based on data over the first three quarters of 2011, the Dutch public deficit was 4.4 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), i.e. the market value of all goods and services produced in the Netherlands.

Proceeds from local government taxes are estimated at 12.2 billion euro in 2012, an increase by 3.2 percent relative to 2011.

The majority of the Dutch population trust their fellow citizens, politics, the police and the legal system. Confidence has grown over the period 2002-2010.

On 1 January 2012, the number of municipalities in the Netherlands will be reduced from 418 to 415.

The Dutch government spent 15.8 billion euro on state old age pensions in the first half of 2011. This is 6 percent more than in the same period last year.

Public debt amounted to 383 billion euro in the second quarter of this year. Although much higher than in the pre-recession era in 2007, the Dutch interest burden declined on an annual basis and is relatively low compared to other eurozone countries.

The opinions of Dutch voters on political issues often vary widely. This applies in particular to Green Left (GL) voters and Party for Freedom (PVV) voters.

The Dutch government spent 16.5 billion euro more than it received in the first half of 2011. This deficit is about the same as in the first half of 2010.

In the Netherlands, 179 billion euro ((30 percent of the total amount earned by all Dutch together) was spent on social security last year. Unemployment benefits rose most rapidly by 12 percent compared to 2009.

At the end of June this year, 40 thousand social assistance benefits went to over-65 households, i.e. twice as many as a decade ago. The reason for the increase is that more and more over-65 households are not eligible for the full old age pension (AOW) amount.

The Dutch government spent 2.2 billion euro less on disability benefits for young people (Wajong benefits) in 2010. This accounts for one fifth of the country’s total spending on disability benefits.

Dutch municipalities suffered total losses of 414 million euro on building land in 2009. They also had deficits in most other policy areas.

According to the most recent figures, the costs of health care and welfare amounted to 87.6 billion euro in 2010, a 3.6 percent increase relative to 2009. Over the period 2004-2008, the costs of care increased at an accelerated rate to 7.0 percent in 2008.

The consumption of motor fuels, alcohol and tobacco put 11.1 billion euro in excise duties in Dutch government coffers in 2010.

Over 60 percent in the Dutch over-18 population oppose the concept of dual nationality, in particular lower educated and over-45s. Three in every five people in the Dutch population aged 18 years and older think that by accepting the Dutch nationality, immigrants should give up their former nationality.

Last year’s government deficit stood at 5.4 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), just under the 2009 level. The debt of the Dutch government increased further from 60.8 to 62.7 percent of the GDP.

Municipal revenue from dog registration fees is projected at 58 million euro. Dog registration fees are more common in large cities than in rural municipalities and more often in the western than in the northern provinces.

Many voters in the Netherlands use the possibility of voting by proxy. In the 2010 Lower Chamber elections, 8 percent of voters had authorised someone else to vote for them.

In 2011, the provincial budget for public transport amounts to 944 million euro, nearly twice as much as in 2005. In the province of North Brabant, the budget for 2011 is more than four times as high as in 2005; in the province of Zeeland the budget was slightly lower.

The provincial road maintenance budget amounts to 1.2 billion euro in 2011, i.e. more than one and a half times as high as in 2005.

Provincial authorities have estimated the youth welfare budget for 2011 at 1.1 billion euro, i.e. 11 percent of their total provincial budget. Thus, child and youth welfare is one of the main tasks of provinces.

In 2011 the local governments expect to receive 11.8 billion euro in local taxes.

The Dutch government spent nearly 10 billion euro on income-dependent allowances for housing, care and childcare in 2009. This is half a billion more than in 2008.

Provincial authorities expect to receive 1.441 billion euro from the surcharge on motor vehicle tax in 2011. This is 1.9 percent more than in 2010, and the smallest increase since the turn of the century.

In the last decade participation and trust in Dutch society have gone up slightly. This is shown by the increase in the social contacts citizens have with family, friends and acquaintances, among other things.

In the first half of 2010 spending on AOW pensions increased by 500 million euro on the first half of 2009. By the end of June 2010 nearly 2.9 million people received AOW pension benefits.

Even in times of economic recession, most Dutch people are satisfied with many aspects that determine quality of life.

In the first half of 2010, public expenditure has risen by more than 7 billion euro relative to one year previously. Public revenue rose less rapidly by more than 3 billion euro.

Last year, government expenditure on foreign policy amounted to 16 billion euro, a decrease by more than 9 percent relative to 2008. The decrease is mainly due to one-off, lower contributions to the European Union.

A majority in the Dutch population have confidence in their fellow men and in various national and international institutions. The Netherlands takes up a prominent position in Europe in this respect.

Municipal authorities expect revenue from sewerage charges to double in 2010 compared to 2000. This is due to higher costs for maintenance and construction of the sewerage system and the fact that a larger part of the costs is funded from sewerage charges.

Last year, 169 billion euro was paid out in social security benefits, i.e. 30 percent of the total amount earned by all Dutch. Two thirds of social security concern old age provisions and support given to ill people.

Over the past decade, the costs of the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act (AWBZ) have risen by nearly 75 percent. Important factors are population ageing, less rigid access criteria to health facilities and person-related budgets.

Municipalities, provinces and central government in the Netherlands spent nearly 1.5 billion euro on sport in 2008. In the same year they received nearly 0.4 billion euro, for example in rent for sport facilities and centres.

Together, the financial capital of the twelve Dutch provinces amounted to nearly 4 billion euro in 2008. The sale of energy companies Nuon and Essent in the third quarter of 2009 pushed this amount up to 17 billion euro.

Tax proceeds from betting and gambling increased from less than 200 million euro in 2006 to nearly 450 million euro in 2009.

Revenues from municipal taxes will rise by less in large than in small and medium-sized municipalities in 2010.

In 2010, provincial and municipal government authorities expect local tax proceeds to amount to 11.5 billion euro, a 2.6 percent increase on 2009.

With 14.8 billion euro, government revenues from natural gas reached a new record last year. Natural gas revenues grew by 5 billion euro relative to 2007.

The financial crisis forced the Dutch government to intervene in the affairs of a number banks and insurance companies at the end of 2008. Among other things, this intervention resulted in a substantial increase in state-owned shares

By the end of the third quarter of 2009, nearly 242 thousand regular unemployment (WW) benefits were granted, i.e. 21 thousand more than in the previous quarter. Additionally, 36 thousand part-time WW benefits were paid, an increase by 17 thousand in three months. In the third quarter of this year, the amounts involved were 1 billion euro (WW benefits) and 72 million euro (part-time WW benefits).

In the first six months of 2009, public debt has amounted to more than 356 billion (bn) euro, an increase by nearly 10 bn euro relative to the end of 2008. The government debt-to-GDP ratio was 61.1 percent.

In 2008, public expenditure on defence totalled 8.2 billion euro, i.e. 1.4 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), as against 1.5 percent five years ago and 1.8 percent a decade ago.

Dutch municipalities expect to receive 533 million euro in parking fees, ten times as much as in 1989. Amsterdam estimates to receive more than 130 million euro over 2009, i.e. one quarter of total municipal tax revenues.

Dutch central, provincial and municipal government spent a total 633 million euro on libraries in 2007. This is 6 percent more than in 2006, and 50 percent more than in 1999.

Spending on disablement assistence for young people (Wajong) have been rising in recent years. In 2003 spending amounted to nearly 1.3 billion euro, while in 2008 this had increased to nearly 1.9 billion euro.

In the first quarter of 2009, proceeds from the property transfer tax dropped by 0.7 billion euro, a decline by 30 percent relative to the fourth quarter of 2008. Proceeds have declined for more than a year now.

More than half the adult population of the Netherlands had an active DigiD on 1 July 2008.

Dutch municipalities expect to spend nearly 2.6 billion euro on home help and provisions for individual mobility covered by the Social Support Act (Wmo).

A huge amount of voters in the Netherlands vote by proxy. At the 2006 elections for the Dutch House of Representatives, 12 percent of voters had authorised somebody else to vote for them.

In 2008, revenues from taxes on legacies and gifts amounted to 1.8 billion euro, i.e. more than 4 percent down on 2007. Inheritance tax revenues constitute only a fraction (1.3 percent) of total central government tax revenues.

In 2008, revenues from government taxes were just short of 136 billion euro, a 2 percent increase relative to 2007. Last year’s growth evidently slowed down relative to the period 2005-2007, when the annual increase totalled 8 percent.

Provinces expect total proceeds from road tax surcharge to increase to by 1.4 billion euro this year, i.e. 6.7 percent more than in 2008. With 13.5 percent, the highest increase was registered in the province of North Holland, the lowest (2.4 percent) in the province of Gelderland.

Dutch municipalities expect to receive 7.7 billion euro in municipal taxes this year, an increase by 5 percent relative to 2008.

Water tax proceeds have risen from 1,130 million euro in 1995 to 2,165 million euro in 2009. The water tax rate has risen nearly twice as fast as the inflation rate.

Dutch education spending rose in 2007, but by less than in previous years.

After revision, the costs of education in the Netherlands amounted to 34 billion euro in 2006, an increase by 4 billion euro relative to the amount prior to the revision.

The local government level is fairly comprehensive in the Netherlands. But local government, including municipalities and provinces, is  to a large extent financially dependent on The Hague, where the central government has its seat.

Dutch government spending on public order and security amounted to 11.3 billion euro in 2007. This is 6 percent more than in 2006.

The Dutch government spent 150 billion euro in 2007. This is 6.3 percent more than in 2006.

Since the early 1990s, Euroscepticism has grown among Dutch voters. Only Young voters in the 18–25 age category are truly enthusiastic about Europe.

Voters hardly disagree on a ban on same-sex marriages, abolition of the mortgage interest deduction and tax cuts. They do disagree on the issues of development aid and illegal immigration.

One third of the Dutch population are politically active. They participate in discussions on political issues, take to the streets to demonstrate, sign petitions and contact politicians.

Dutch municipalities added 2.3 billion euro to their net assets in 2006. This is over 1.1 billion more than in 2005, when they had a surplus of 1.2 billion euro.

In 2006, public spending on media amounted to 897 million euro; adjusted for price changes that is 22 percent down on 1999.

In 2007, Dutch students altogether borrowed 2.7 billion euro – an increase by 19 percent relative to the previous year – from the institution responsible for the issue of study loans and grants (IBG). Students in higher education accounted for the largest amount: over 2.2 billion euro.

The surcharge on motor vehicle tax rose by nearly 10 percent in 2008. Since 2000 it has risen by an average 7 percent per year.

Although schools in secondary and tertiary education often have an operating surplus at the end of the year, they do not always save it up. Most schools use the money to invest in buildings or equipment.

In 2007, government-imposed tax proceeds amounted to 133 billion euro, an increase by over 8 billion euro relative to one year ago. Government-imposed tax proceeds have shown a distinctly upward trend since 2004.

Municipal authorities estimate to spend five billion euro on income support benefits in 2008, the lowest amount since 1995.

In 2008, proceeds from municipal taxes were 4.4 percent higher than last year. This is mainly attributable to an increase in property tax (OZB) and sewage charges.

One quarter of primary and special needs schools invested a total of nearly 0.5 billion euro in 2006. Most of this capital was invested in bonds.

In 2008, water board authorities estimate to receive more than 2 billion euro in taxes, an increase by 2.2 percent relative to one year previously.

Dutch municipal budgets show that municipal tax revenues in 2005 will increase by 4.9 percent. This is the lowest increase since 1987. Total tax revenue is estimated at 7.3 billion euro. The burden on households will increase substantially due to the abolishment of the Zalmsnip subsidy.

The Dutch government deficit according to the EMU definition was 2.3 percent in 2004, once again within the limits of the European norm of 3 percent. In 2003 the deficit was still 3.2 percent. Central government accounted for most of the decrease in the deficit. The government debt according to the EMU definition was 55.2 percent of GDP.

The central government deficit over 2003 according to the EMU definition amounts to 14.4 billion euro, i.e. 3.2 percent of the GDP. This is a first estimate based on figures which recently became available. The deficit thus exceeds the EMU norm (3 percent) by 0.2 percent.

Local authority budgets, revenues from taxes collected by Dutch municipal and provincial authorities and water boards will rise by 7.1 percent in 2004. Total taxes paid by private households and companies will come to 9.8 billion euro 7.0 billion euro of this will go into the municipal coffers. Taxes collected by provincial authorities and water boards are expected to amount to 1.0 and 1.9 billion euro respectively.