In its calculations of the possible factors affecting changes in CO2 emissions between 1970 and 2020, CBS studied seven factors, divided into three themes.The first theme includes economic factors, namely economic growth and a shift towards a more services-based economy. The second theme concerns materials: change in material efficiency, change in the share of primary materials in total material use (linearity of material flows), and change in the (inverse of) material use per capita. The third theme focuses on energy use, with the factors change in energy consumption per capita and decarbonisation of the energy mix (shift from fossil to clean energy). The analysis is limited to the period 1970-2020. As soon as more data become available on the factors influencing changes in CO2 emissions, CBS will be able to extend the analysis to more recent years.