In terms of import value, the Netherlands is the largest EU importer of soy, palm oil and cocoa (as well as the related products) from outside the EU. Furthermore, the Netherlands is the second largest EU importer of non-EU wood and cattle and related products, as well as the sixth largest EU importer of coffee; the latter often enters the Netherlands via Germany and Belgium.
Wood imports have more than doubled in two decades
The largest volume growth in these imports from outside the EU since 2002 is in wood (+125 percent), followed by cocoa (+67 percent), cattle (+53 percent) and palm oil (+19 percent). The import volume of coffee has declined slightly (-2 percent) and soy imports have fallen by 21 percent.
|Product||Importgewicht (% change)|
|Wood and wood products||125|
|Cocoa and cocoa products||67|
|Cattle and cattle products||53|
|Palm oil and palm oil products||19|
|Soy and soy products||-21|
|Source: CBS, Eurostat|
|1) Based on the original list not including rubber. EU imports of rubber concern a relatively small flow.|
Main non-EU country of origin is Brazil
Brazil is the largest supplier outside the EU of deforestation-linked goods to the Netherlands. The import value of such goods from Brazil stood at 3.2 billion euros in 2022. These were mainly soy and wood or wood products. The United States is the second largest supplier of soy and wood after Brazil. In third place is Ivory Coast, which supplies mainly cocoa beans. China is a major source of wooden furniture, while Indonesia and Malaysia mainly supply palm oil. Among the top 10 origin countries from outside the EU are also the United Kingdom (mainly wood), Uruguay (wood and cattle), Argentina (cattle and soy) and Ghana (cocoa).
|Cocoa, cocoa products (bn euros)||Wood, wood products (bn euros)||Coffee (bn euros)||Palm oil, palm oil products (bn euros)||Cattle, cattle products (bn euros)||Soy, soy products (bn euros)|
The bulk of imports is ultimately exported
Dutch imports from within the EU also include goods that are linked to deforestation. These are mainly wood and wood products from Germany, Belgium and Sweden. The import value of wood and wood products even exceeds that of all other deforestation-linked products combined.
A share of 28 percent in total Dutch imports of deforestation-linked goods (excluding quasi-transit trade) is exported again without further processing. Thirty-three percent leaves the country after processing in the Netherlands, and 39 percent stays in the Netherlands (for direct consumption or processing). Wood, coffee and cattle are relatively most likely to stay in the Netherlands after import. Cocoa is re-exported relatively often. Palm oil and soy are relatively often processed in the Netherlands and then exported.
|Re-exports (bn euros)||Export after domestic processing (bn euros)||Domestic consumption (bn euros)|
|Wood and wood products||3.29||3.40||6.16|
|Cocoa and cocoa products||1.41||0.63||0.46|
|Palm oil and palm oil products||0.40||1.48||0.44|
|Cattle and cattle products||0.52||0.56||1.01|
|Soy and soy products||0.45||1.09||0.32|