Greenhouse gas emissions 5 percent lower in Q2 2023

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In Q2 2023, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 5 percent lower than in Q2 2022. This was mainly due to 23 percent lower emissions in the electricity sector. However, emissions in the mobility sector were 7 percent higher than one year previously. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)/Emissions Register report this on the basis of provisional quarterly figures on GHG emissions, in accordance with the IPCC guidelines.

GHG emissions by source sector, Q2
   CO2 (megatonnes of CO2-equivalent)Other greenhouse gases (megatonnes of CO2-equivalent)
Total IPCC2023*28.46.5
Total IPCC2022*30.26.5
Buildings and construction2023*2.40.2
Buildings and construction2022*2.70.2
Land use2023*10.1
Land use2022*10.1
* provisional figures

Reduced emissions in electricity sector, built environment and manufacturing

In Q2 2023, GHG emissions in the electricity sector were 23 percent lower than in the same quarter last year. The sector produced 42 percent less electricity from coal and 2 percent less from natural gas. At the same time, more electricity was generated from renewable sources compared to the same quarter of the previous year. The share of the electricity sector in GHG emissions amounted to 15 percent in Q2 2023.

The built environment (homes, offices, schools, care institutions, etc.) emitted 11 percent fewer greenhouse gases compared to one year previously. In the second and third quarters, the share in total GHG emissions was considerably lower than in the other two quarters. This is because less natural gas was needed to heat buildings during these months. In Q2 2023, the share was 7 percent.

GHG emissions from manufacturing were 5 percent lower in Q2 2023. They accounted for 35 percent of total emissions in the second quarter.

More mobility emissions

Just as in the first quarter of 2023, GHG emissions from mobility were higher in the second quarter compared to one year previously. These increases follow declines during the pandemic years. The increase of 7 percent in the second quarter was mainly caused by petrol consumption, which was 12 percent higher than in Q2 2022. The share of the mobility sector in total GHG emissions stood at 23 percent in Q2 2023.

Emissions in the agricultural sector were virtually the same as in Q2 2022.

Small part of emissions from land use

A small part of GHG emissions, 3 percent, is related to land use. This concerns, for example, the CO2 emissions from oxidation of peat soils and the emissions associated with changes in land use.

From now on, emissions from the land use climate sector will be included in total GHG emissions, because they count towards the current Dutch target to reduce GHG emissions by at least 55 percent by 2030. Land use is also included in the climate targets of the European Union.

Contributions of greenhouse gas emissions by source sector, Q2 2023
Buildings and construction7.3
Land use3.1

CBS also calculates CO2 emissions from all domestic economic activities according to the national accounts. Compared to emissions according to the IPCC definitions, this also includes the CO2 emissions from international air and sea transport and the emissions from combustion of biomass. In the message below, the CO2 emissions are presented in accordance with the calculation method of the national accounts.

CO2 emissions by the Dutch economy over 3 percent lower in Q2 2023

In Q2 2023, the Dutch economy emitted 3.2 percent less CO2 than in Q2 2022, while gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 0.3 percent in the same period. Adjusted for the weather effect, the decline in CO2 emissions amounted to 1.0 percent. The drop in emissions by the Dutch economy is mainly due to lower natural gas consumption by the electricity sector and households. On the other hand, emissions in the transport sector and the consumption of petrol by households were considerably higher.

In Q2, CO2 emissions from mineral extraction, manufacturing and construction together were 5.0 percent lower than in the same quarter last year. The basic metal and chemical industries in particular emitted less CO2. However, emissions from construction were higher.

The transport sector emitted 6.1 percent more CO2. The increase was mainly due to the recovery of maritime transport and aviation. CO2 emissions from aviation were over 9 percent higher than in Q2 2022.

CO2 emissions and economic development, Q2 2023
CategoriesCO2-emissions (year-on-year volume change in %)Value added (year-on-year volume change in %)GDP (year-on-year volume change in %)
Total (weather adjusted)-1
Energy and water supply,
waste management
manufacturing and construction
Other services0.5-0.1
Transport sector6.1-9.1

The calculations of CO2 emissions are a first estimate based on information available at that particular moment. Figures may change as a result of new statistical source information becoming available at a later stage.