|Year||Month||Year-on-year change (year-on-year % change)|
Price increase for clothingPrice developments of clothing had an upward effect on inflation. In September, clothes were 0.1 percent more expensive than one year previously. In August, prices were still 4.5 percent lower year-on-year. Summer sales lasted longer in 2020 than in 2019, with lower average prices in August as a result. Autumn collections were mostly introduced in September.
|September (percentage point)||August (percentage point)|
|Miscellaneous goods |
|Alcoholic beverages and |
|Housing, water and |
|Restaurants and hotels||0.18||0.12|
|Food and non-alcoholic |
|Recreation and culture||0.13||0.09|
|Furnishing, household |
|Clothing and shoes||0.08||-0.16|
Inflation in Europe remains negative
Aside from the consumer price index (CPI), CBS also calculates the European harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP).
In September, HICP-based prices of goods and services in the Netherlands were 1.0 percent up year-on-year, versus 0.3 percent in August. According to provisional figures, the inflation rate in the eurozone declined from -0.2 percent in August to -0.3 percent in September. As a result, the difference between inflation in the Netherlands and inflation in the eurozone became more substantial last month. Inflation has been higher in the Netherlands than in the eurozone every month since December 2018.
|year||month||The Netherlands (year-on-year % change)||Euro area (year-on-year % change)|
The HICP is compiled according to the European harmonised method in order to facilitate comparison between the various EU member states. Price indices for the eurozone and the European Union as a whole are calculated on the basis of the HICPs of the individual member states. The European Central Bank (ECB) uses these figures to formulate its monetary policy.
Unlike the CPI, the HICP does not take into account the costs related to home ownership. In the Dutch CPI, these costs are calculated on the basis of developments in rental property prices.
Implications of the coronavirus crisis for consumer price measurements in September
Due to coronavirus-related government measures, in September the full extent of services by e.g. airlines and events was limited or unavailable. As a consequence, there were no transactions for many of these services for which prices could be measured. In line with guidelines from Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, CBS chose the most appropriate estimation method for each situation. The product groups within which prices had to be estimated due to coronavirus measures account for around 3 percent of consumptive expenditure. All choices are explained in a publication, and a table indicates per product group if an estimate had to be made.