Baseline for pre-corona situationThe data in the Monitor of Well-being & the SDGs 2020 do not reflect the impact of the coronavirus crisis. The same is true of the figures on the distribution of well-being. Almost all figures on the distribution of well-being refer to 2019. This means they can be seen as a baseline on the eve of the coronavirus outbreak. Next year and in subsequent years the same indicators can be used to analyse whether – and if so to what extent – the distribution of well-being will shift during and after this unprecedented crisis situation.
Highest completed level of education
Higher educated people rank higher on well-being scaleThe distribution of well-being within population groups based on sex, age, education and migration background is measured using a maximum of 20 indicators divided into the themes general well-being, material well-being, health, labour and leisure time, housing, society, security and environment. People with higher education score higher than average on thirteen of these indicators, people with lower levels of education are only higher than average on three indicators. Vice versa, the higher educated score lower than average on four indicators, while those with lower levels of education score below average on twelve indicators.
Women have more social contacts and are less overweightWomen are in a more favourable position than men on five aspects of well-being. Relatively fewer of them report being a victim of crime (excl. cybercrime), they are more likely to do voluntary work and they have more weekly contacts with family and friends and/or neighbours than men. Women are also more satisfied with the amount of leisure time they have than men. And lastly fewer women (40 percent) than men (48 percent) are overweight.
|Being overweight *||48.1||40.1|
|Satisfaction with amount of leisure time **||72.9||75.4|
|Weekly contact with family/friends/neigbours***||69.8||74.6|
|Voluntary work ***||45.5||47.9|
|Victim of crime ***||14.3||13.0|
|* 4 yrs and over ** 18 yrs and over *** 15 yrs and over|
Men more often have paid work and higher personal well-beingOn five other well-being indicators men score more favourably than women. Men are less likely to feel unsafe in their own neighbourhood, more likely to trust other people and more of them describe their health as good or very good. Relatively more men than women have paid work. And relatively more men than women have a high score on the personal well-being index, a combined measure of well-being in various areas of life. In 2019, 68 percent of men had a high personal well-being score, compared with 62 percent of women.
|Describes health as good or very good||81.2||76.3|
|Paid work **||73.2||64.4|
|Personal well-being index||67.6||61.9|
|Trust in other people ***||63.9||59.8|
|Often feels unsafe in own neighbourhood||1.1||1.7|
|* 18 yrs and over ** 15 to 74 yrs *** 15 yrs and over|
Education level is a significant factor
The studies underlying the Monitor of Well-being and the SDG’s 2020 not only examined distribution within groups in the population. It also looked at the cumulative favourable or unfavourable results at individual level, based on data on ten well-being indicators for each person. This revealed that men accumulate positive results slightly more often and negative results slightly less often than women.
In these individual level cumulative favourable and unfavourable results, education level was a prominent factor. People with a low education level very rarely have an accumulation of positive results, while over one third of them have an accumulation of negative results. The situation is very different for those with higher education levels: they often accumulate favourable results.
Highest completed level of education
The results for the Sustainable Development Goal on gender equality (SDG 5) show that in some areas the difference between men and women is diminishing. The wage gap, for example, decreased between 2012 and 2019. On the other hand the number of women in parliament fell and the proportion of senior management positions held by women is much lower than in other EU countries.