To determine education levels, the highest attained level of education of the primary parent/caregiver is used as a reference. Three levels are distinguished:
- Low: the highest attained level is primary education, pre-vocational education (VMBO), lower general secondary (HAVO/VWO) or assistant training at secondary vocational level (MBO-1).
- Medium: the highest attained level is upper general secondary (HAVO/VWO), basic vocational training (MBO-2), vocational training (MBO-3) and middle management and specialist training (MBO-4).
- High: the highest attained level is tertiary education, i.e. university or university of applied sciences (HBO).