International trade; Dutch export specialisation with respect to the EU

International trade; Dutch export specialisation with respect to the EU

Harmonized System Periods Distribution of exports Exports of Dutch products Distribution of exports Re-exports
Total goods 2020 54.7 45.3
01 Live animals 2020 86.0 14.0
02 Meat and edible meat offal 2020 88.2 11.8
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and... 2020 72.5 27.5
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural... 2020 80.9 19.1
05 Products of animal origin, not els... 2020 35.9 64.1
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs... 2020 94.5 5.5
07 Edible vegetables and certain root... 2020 82.1 17.9
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of cit... 2020 21.9 78.1
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 2020 50.6 49.4
10 Cereals 2020 32.3 67.7
11 Products of the milling industry; ... 2020 86.3 13.7
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; m... 2020 50.3 49.7
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegeta... 2020 62.6 37.4
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vege... 2020 37.8 62.2
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils ... 2020 60.1 39.9
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or o... 2020 66.7 33.3
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 2020 76.1 23.9
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 2020 67.3 32.7
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, st... 2020 85.0 15.0
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit,... 2020 70.2 29.8
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 2020 68.1 31.9
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 2020 71.2 28.8
23 Residues and waste from the food i... 2020 71.0 29.0
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco s... 2020 73.5 26.5
25 Salt; sulphur; earths and stone; p... 2020 62.8 37.2
26 Ores, slag and ash 2020 21.8 78.2
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and pr... 2020 68.8 31.2
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or in... 2020 67.7 32.3
29 Organic chemicals 2020 66.7 33.3
30 Pharmaceutical products 2020 37.0 63.0
31 Fertilisers 2020 84.2 15.8
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; tannin... 2020 49.3 50.7
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perf... 2020 65.3 34.7
34 Soap, organic surface-active agent... 2020 73.4 26.6
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified ... 2020 68.0 32.0
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; ... 2020 67.7 32.3
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 2020 59.9 40.1
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 2020 47.9 52.1
39 Plastics and articles thereof 2020 74.6 25.4
40 Rubber and articles thereof 2020 44.8 55.2
41 Raw hides and skins (other than fu... 2020 69.0 31.0
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and ... 2020 33.7 66.3
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manuf... 2020 69.4 30.6
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood ch... 2020 64.3 35.7
45 Cork and articles of cork 2020 50.8 49.2
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto ... 2020 53.7 46.3
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous c... 2020 41.8 58.2
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of ... 2020 75.5 24.5
49 Printed books, newspapers, picture... 2020 76.9 23.1
50 Silk 2020 8.1 91.9
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; ... 2020 55.1 44.9
52 Cotton 2020 65.6 34.4
53 Other vegetable textile fibres; pa... 2020 77.9 22.1
54 Man-made filaments; strip and the ... 2020 72.9 27.1
55 Man-made staple fibres 2020 67.2 32.8
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; speci... 2020 74.6 25.4
57 Carpets and other textile floor co... 2020 82.8 17.2
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted text... 2020 73.0 27.0
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or la... 2020 64.9 35.1
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 2020 49.8 50.2
61 Articles of apparel and clothing a... 2020 1.1 98.9
62 Articles of apparel and clothing a... 2020 0.4 99.6
63 Other made-up textile articles; se... 2020 47.7 52.3
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; pa... 2020 34.3 65.7
65 Headgear and parts thereof 2020 51.0 49.0
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking ... 2020 44.8 55.2
67 Prepared feathers and down and art... 2020 54.2 45.8
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement... 2020 67.2 32.8
69 Ceramic products 2020 61.5 38.5
70 Glass and glassware 2020 60.4 39.6
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precio... 2020 62.8 37.2
72 Iron and steel 2020 67.9 32.1
73 Articles of iron or steel 2020 66.6 33.4
74 Copper and articles thereof 2020 49.5 50.5
75 Nickel and articles thereof 2020 19.7 80.3
76 Aluminium and articles thereof 2020 55.8 44.2
78 Lead and articles thereof 2020 89.6 10.4
79 Zinc and articles thereof 2020 56.2 43.8
80 Tin and articles thereof 2020 16.6 83.4
81 Other base metals; cermets; articl... 2020 36.9 63.1
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons... 2020 39.3 60.7
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 2020 45.6 54.4
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machine... 2020 53.5 46.5
85 Electrical machinery and equipment... 2020 21.5 78.5
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, ro... 2020 91.6 8.4
87 Vehicles other than railway or tra... 2020 76.4 23.6
88 Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts th... 2020 32.6 67.4
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 2020 74.0 26.0
90 Optical, photographic, cinematogra... 2020 30.9 69.1
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 2020 61.1 38.9
92 Musical instruments; parts and acc... 2020 35.4 64.6
93 Arms and ammunition; parts and acc... 2020 59.8 40.2
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, ma... 2020 51.9 48.1
95 Toys, games and sports requisites;... 2020 50.0 50.0
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 2020 65.1 34.9
97 Works of art, collectors' pieces a... 2020 77.5 22.5
98 Components of complete industrial ... 2020 0.0 0.0
99 Miscellaneous 2020 97.1 2.9
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table describes the export specialisation of Dutch exports using the Balassa index. A Balassa index higher than 1 indicates specialisation in a product. If the index is below 1, there is no specialisation in that product.

The table also shows the share of each product chapter of the Harmonized System in total Dutch exports. Furthermore, it shows both the share of products made in the Netherlands as the re-exports of this chapter.

Data available from: 1996.

Status of the figures:
The figures are definite.

Changes as of December 3, 2021:
The final figures for 2020 have been added.

When will new figures be published?
The figures become available in the fourth quarter after the year under review.

Description topics

Distribution of exports
Exports of Dutch products
Exports of commodities produced or manufactured in the Netherlands.
Re-exports
Goods transported via the Netherlands, which are temporarily owned by a resident of the Netherlands, without any significant industrial processing.

Explanation
Re-exports include among other things commodities that are cleared through customs by Dutch distribution centres and are delivered to other countries (within Europe). Unlike transit trade, re-exports are part of Dutch imports and exports.