Land use; main categories; regional, 1900 onwards

Land use; main categories; regional, 1900 onwards

Regions Periods Total surface (km2) Transport Transport total (km2) Transport Railroad (km2) Transport Main road (km2) Transport Airport (km2) Built-up area Built-up area total (km2) Built-up area Residential (km2) Built-up area Industry, business, public institutions (km2) Built-up area Socio-cultural facilities (km2) Semi built-up area Semi built-up area total (km2) Semi built-up area Mining area (km2) Semi built-up area Building site (km2) Semi built-up area Other semi built-up area (km2) Recreation Recreation total (km2) Recreation Park and public garden (km2) Recreation Sport grounds (km2) Recreation Other recreation usage (km2) Agriculture Agriculture total (km2) Agriculture Greenhouses (km2) Agriculture Other agricultural usage (km2) Woodland and nature Woodland and nature total (km2) Woodland and nature Woodland (km2) Woodland and nature Natural open area (km2) Water Water total (km2) Water Inland water total (km2) Water Tidal water total (km2)
The Netherlands 1900 32,550 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,160 8,760 2,520 6,240 910 . .
The Netherlands 1950 35,500 951 122 774 55 . . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . 25,050 5,150 2,420 2,730 880 . .
The Netherlands 2000 41,528 1,130 88 1,016 26 3,183 2,211 820 152 486 32 327 127 889 240 315 334 23,260 150 23,111 4,835 3,501 1,334 7,744 3,574 4,170
The Netherlands 2010 41,543 1,176 86 1,066 24 3,502 2,314 1,035 153 512 32 369 112 988 284 345 360 22,644 166 22,478 4,865 3,454 1,411 7,856 3,661 4,195
The Netherlands 2015 41,543 1,156 89 1,044 23 3,615 2,358 1,096 161 493 34 349 110 1,054 308 360 386 22,363 155 22,208 4,990 3,413 1,577 7,872 3,719 4,153
The Netherlands 2017 41,543 1,151 88 1,038 24 3,701 2,414 1,123 165 392 31 250 110 1,083 329 363 392 22,304 158 22,147 5,015 3,406 1,608 7,896 3,744 4,152
The Netherlands 2022 41,543 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fryslân (PV) 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fryslân (PV) 1950 3,528 54 5 46 3 . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . 2,824 411 64 347 136 . .
Fryslân (PV) 2000 5,741 87 4 82 1 153 113 34 6 26 2 15 9 46 8 16 22 2,649 1 2,649 387 118 269 2,392 651 1,741
Fryslân (PV) 2010 5,749 88 4 83 1 173 118 48 6 30 2 19 9 50 9 18 23 2,602 2 2,600 382 115 267 2,423 662 1,761
Fryslân (PV) 2015 5,749 84 4 79 1 180 122 51 7 29 2 17 9 55 11 18 25 2,576 2 2,575 412 113 299 2,413 667 1,747
Fryslân (PV) 2017 5,749 84 4 79 1 184 124 53 7 21 2 10 9 56 11 18 26 2,572 2 2,570 423 113 309 2,409 668 1,741
Fryslân (PV) 2022 5,753 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utrecht (PV) 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utrecht (PV) 1950 1,385 39 13 24 3 . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 936 255 180 75 34 34
Utrecht (PV) 2000 1,439 51 6 44 1 202 142 46 14 19 1 15 4 50 16 19 15 833 3 830 207 187 20 78 78
Utrecht (PV) 2010 1,449 58 6 50 1 223 150 58 14 24 0 20 4 54 19 21 14 817 2 815 206 184 22 67 67
Utrecht (PV) 2015 1,449 58 7 50 1 229 154 61 14 19 0 15 4 57 20 22 15 806 2 804 210 183 27 71 71
Utrecht (PV) 2017 1,449 57 7 50 0 235 157 62 15 15 0 11 4 60 23 22 15 799 2 797 212 183 29 72 72
Utrecht (PV) 2022 1,560 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table provides information about the land use of the area of the Netherlands and the changes in land use.

This table is based on the Bestand Bodemgebruik (BBG), which literally translates as the ‘land use file’. For intervening base years without a BBG, this table just presents total area statistics for the presented regions.

Previously published base years in this table are never revised for corrections established when a newer BBG-edition is produced. Such corrections consist of corrections of earlier misinterpretations and of improved interpretations based on new sources. The corrections are recorded in the so-called Mutatiebestand (the mutations file) which is part of each BBG publication. See Bestand Bodemgebruik for further information on correction of the land use statistics and for available publications.

Due to the longstanding tradition of these statistics (since the year 1900) this table contains some composite categories. These composite categories consist of two or more of the land use categories as they are in use in the contemporary Bestand Bodemgebruik. These composite categories are the subtotals ‘Industry, business, public institutions’, ‘Other semi built-up area’, ‘Other recreation usage’, ‘Natural open area’ and ‘Water total’. See the ‘Topics/Classifications’ section of this table for further specifications of these composite categories.


Data available since: 1900.

Status of the figures:
The figures in this table are final.

Changes as of November 2022:
Addition of land use statistics of 2017.
Addition of total area statistics of 2016, 2018, 2020, 2021 and 2022.

When will new figures be published?
For the base years 2000 to 2017 this table is based on the Bestand Bodemgebruik (BBG). The production methods and the specifications of the Bestand Bodemgebruik are currently subject of process redesign. The first publications of the thus re-newed land use statistics are expected in the year 2024. Whether or not this table will be supplemented with these new statistics has not yet been decided upon. See Bestand Bodemgebruik for further information on the redesign of these land use statistics.

Description topics

Total surface
Total surface of the Netherlands.
Transport
Area in use for traffic and transport on roads, on railways and in the air.
Transport total
Total area of the main group ‘Transport’.
Railroad
Area in use for traffic and transport on railways.

Including
- slopes;
- dead end rails to industrial area;
- shunting area;
- railway yard including station buildings and adjacent parking areas.

Excluding
- narrow gauge, this is included at the adjacent land use.
Main road
Area in use for traffic and transport over the main road network.

Including
- roads with function of transportation artery;
- included green in connections with roads and inside roundabouts;
- parking areas;
- busstation;
- gasoilstation;
- storages for road maintenance.

Excluding
- included green, larger than 1 ha in use of agriculture or woodland;
- included water larger than 1 ha;
- main road under construction.
Airport
Area in use for traffic and transport in the air.

Including
- paved and unpaved airstrips;
- associated buildings and parking areas.

Excluding
- unpaved soil inside the enclosed airport (not belonging to airstrips);
- adjacent areas with services and industries.

Since the 2017 land use edition of the Bestand Bodemgebruik, unpaved areas within airport grounds that are actively used for flying related activities (e.g. taking of, landing, or parking of gliders, ultra-light planes) are categorised as Airport.
Built-up area
Area in use for residents, work, shopping, cultural facilities and public amenities.
Built-up area total
Total area of the main group ‘Built-on area’.
Residential
Area mainly used for residents, including primary amenities.

Including
- housing areas;
- primary amenities e.g. (local) shops, primary schools;
- local offices of e.g. banks;
- green areas smaller than 1 hectare;
- streets and local parking areas;
- courtyards, gardens;
- playing grounds;
- trailer camp (excluding wreckage areas larger than 0,1 hectare).

If residential areas are inside woodland, the total area is assignated as residential if a street pattern can be recognized.
Industry, business, public institutions
Area in use for industry, retail and business services, for concentrated retail trade and catering activities and for general use, like community homes, police offices and utility services.
Socio-cultural facilities
Area in use by social and cultural facilities as hospitals, universities and musea.

Including
- secondary schools and schools of applied science;
- boarding school;
- conference centre;
- hospital, sanatorium, nursing home, psychiatrist hospital etc.;
- church, cloister, museum (including castles that are open to the public), excluding open air museum;
- theatre, cinema, concert- and congress hall;
- cultural centre;
- community centre, club house, youth association;
- sheltered workshop;
- associated parking areas and forest- or shrublines.

Social and cultural facilities are mainly limited on the map by a fence. As the limit of the object, the location of the fence is used.
Semi built-up area
Area with a certain amount of paving, not in use as traffic area or built-up area.
Semi built-up area total
Total area of the main group ‘Semi built-up area’.
Mining area
Area for winning materials from the bottom or soil.

Including
- area for deep- and shallow extraction of raw materials;
- associated buildings, parking areas, storage areas of extracted materials and waste.

Raw materials include
- natural gas;
- petroleum;
- stone;
- gravel;
- clay;
- loam;
- marl;
- peat;
- sand;
- salt.

Mining areas of natural gas and petroleum are mainly limited on the map by a fence. As the limit of the object, the location of the fence is used.

Minimum size of 0,5 hectare.
Building site
Area in use for construction.

including
- area of construction or with preparing traces;
- fallow land on industrial- and office areas.
Other semi built-up area
Area of other use with a certain amount of pavement.

including
- a dyke that is not overgrown with grass;
- pier above sea;
- fallow land that can not be recognized as building site;
- railway out of use.

For longitudinal piers and embankments that are connected to the land, the minimum size is 0,1 hectare.
Recreation
Area in use for recreation.
Recreation total
Total area of the main group ‘Recreation’.
Park and public garden
Green area in use for relaxation.

Including
- area for the public with lawns, playing fields, sunbathing areas, paths, shrubs, flowerbeds and waterponds;
- greenbelts.

Parts of the parks that can be assigned to woodland (also larger than 1 hectare) will be assigned to park and public garden.
Sport grounds
Area in use for sport activities.

Including
- area for fieldsport, including trotting and racing, golf area;
- swimming pool, ice skating place;
- sports hall and horse riding school;
- permanent motorcross area (including basic ones);
- associated stands;
- woodland if included in the sport area;
- associated parking areas and forest- or shrublines.

Minimum size of 0,5 hectare.
Other recreation usage
Area of allotment gardens, for daytrips like zoos, open air musea and attraction parks and for a recreational residence of several days, like campings, holiday parks and youth hostels.
Agriculture
Area for agriculture.
Agriculture total
Total area of the main group ‘Agriculture’.
Greenhouses
Area in use for agriculture in greenhouses.

Including
- area of the cultivation of plants under glass in greenhouses;
- associated waterbasins.
Other agricultural usage
Area for agriculture without glass, like pastures, fields and orchards.

Including
- grassland (hayland and pastures) including the grass growns dikes and river forelands;
- area for cattle breeding;
- orchards, including underplanting, maintenance paths and windbreaks;
- horticulture and arable farming;
- cultivation of small fruits;
- scattered houses with associated yards and gardens, as far as they are in the middle or adjacent to agricultural area;
- natural grassland.
Woodland and nature
Area with forest or natural open area.
Woodland and nature total
Total area of the main group ‘Woodland and nature’.
Woodland
Area with trees for wood production and nature conservation.

Including
- area with trees of which the crowns are a closed entity;
- cutting field;
- fire lane;
- forest path;
- nursery of forests;
- storage of wood;
- scattered houses, if placed inside the woodland;
- poplar fields.

Excluding
- wooded areas of parks;
- forest nurseries that are outside the woodland;
- residential areas (with a pattern of streets) and areas of recreational houses inside the woodland.
Natural open area
Open area with a wet or dry surface, mainly nature.
Water
Water total
Total area of the main group ‘Water’
Inland water total
Inland water in use as waterway, recreational water, mining area, sewage or sludge farm, water reservoir, including IJsselmeer.
Tidal water total
Water outside the average high tide.