Climate and Energy Outlook 2021

© Hollandse Hoogte / Friso Spoelstra
The Netherlands Climate and Energy Outlook 2021 (KEV) is a joint publication by PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, TNO Energy Transition, Statistics Netherlands (CBS), the Netherlands Enterprise Agency ( and the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).

In addition, Wageningen University and Research (WUR) prepares the estimates for livestock farming, arable farming and land use. PBL also hires in specialist knowledge at Significance (aviation) and Revnext (development of electric cars).

The KEV is a joint project between PBL, CBS, TNO Energy Transition, RIVM and, with contributions from WUR. This publication includes the integrated results, which means it is not possible to trace the contributions of each institute individually.