Ukrainian refugees who came to the Netherlands after the Russian invasion in late February 2022 do not need a work permit to work. This puts them in an exceptional position compared to other migrants from outside the European Union or countries of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).
Sharpest increase among women
The share of Ukrainian refugees in paid employment rose most sharply among women, from 44 percent in November 2022 to 51 percent in May 2023. The increase was smallest among young men (aged 15 to 24 years) over this period: from 38 to 41 percent.
Flexible contracts and part-time work most common
Most Ukrainian refugees were employed as on-call workers (28 percent), temporary workers (38 percent), or had other temporary employment (31 percent). The largest proportion worked part-time: mostly 30 to 35 hours per week (29 percent); 18 percent worked full-time (35 hours or more).
The majority of Ukrainian refugees were employed in the business services sector (51 percent), which includes employment agencies. It is often impossible to verify in which sector temporary employees are being deployed. Apart from business services, comparatively many Ukrainian refugees also worked in the sector trade, transport and accommodation and food services (31 percent).
Ukrainian refugees in paid employment changed employers relatively often. Of those who were in employment both on 1 July 2022 and on 1 May 2023, 39 percent changed employers in the meantime.