Distribution of well-being in 2020 similar to 2019

© Hollandse Hoogte / Flip Franssen
Well-being is not equally distributed in the Netherlands. People with lower levels of education and those with a non-western migration background are more likely to have lower levels of well-being; those with high levels of education and a native Dutch background have higher levels. The coronavirus crisis does not yet seem to have had an effect on the distribution patterns. These are some of the findings of the CBS Monitor of Well-being and the Sustainable Development Goals 2021.

Well-being comprises more than the narrow concept of economy and income. It also includes factors like health, education level and quality of the living environment. Together these factors constitute a broader concept of well-being. This broader well-being was not distributed equally across the Dutch population in 2019. And this did not change much in corona year 2020. On the whole, groups that deviated from the average on certain well-being indicators in 2019 still did so in 2020.

Higher education and non-migrant background more likely to result in higher well-being

The distribution of well-being is measured using scores on a maximum of 21 indicators in the areas of personal well-being, material well-being, health, labour and leisure, housing, society, safety and the environment. Information for 2019 and 2020 is available for 17 of the 21 indicators.

People with a high education level score higher than average on 10 of these 17 indicators. These include satisfaction with life, perceived health, paid work and trust in other people. In 2019 higher educated people scored higher than average on 11 indicators.

People with low education levels score higher than average on two indicators in 2020, just as in 2019. In 2020, these indicators were satisfaction with leisure time and experiencing pollution in the living environment.

People who do not have a migrant background score higher than average on 14 indicators (16 indicators in 2019). The only indicators for which they do not score better than average are being overweight, satisfaction with commuting time and trust in institutions. Just as in 2019, people with a non-western migrant background do not score higher than average for any indicator. It should be mentioned in this respect that people with a non-western background are relatively more likely to have lower education levels, which in part explains the unfavourable position of this group.

Distribution of well-being in 2020 and 2019
Indicators on which certain population groups have a significantly higher (green) or lower (red) well-being than the national average (grey) in 2020 and 2019. Men and women are not compared with the national average but with each other.
Ordered by colour
Ordered by indicator
Legenda20202019

Sex

Men, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Men, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Men, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Education level: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Long-term unemployment: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Job satisfaction: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Men, Quality of the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Voluntary work: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Men, Trust in institutions: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Men, Personal well-being: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Men, Perceived health: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Men, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Men, Trust in other people: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Women, Personal well-being: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Women, Perceived health: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Women, Net labour participation: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Women, Trust in other people: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Women, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Education level: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Long-term unemployment: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Job satisfaction: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Women, Quality of the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Voluntary work: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Women, Trust in institutions: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Women, Overweight population: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Women, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.

Age

18-24, Satisfaction with life: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
18-24, Education level: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
18-24, Net labour participation: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
18-24, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
18-24, Quality of the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
18-24, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
18-24, Job satisfaction: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
18-24, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
18-24, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
18-24, Voluntary work: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
18-24, Trust in other people: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
18-24, Personal well-being: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
18-24, Perceived health: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
18-24, Overweight population: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
18-24, Long-term unemployment: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
18-24, Trust in institutions: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
18-24, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Job satisfaction: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
25-34, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
25-34, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
25-34, Quality of the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
25-34, Satisfaction with the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
25-34, Voluntary work: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
25-34, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
25-34, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
25-34, Personal well-being: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Perceived health: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Overweight population: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Education level: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Long-term unemployment: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
25-34, Trust in other people: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
25-34, Trust in institutions: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
35-44, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
35-44, Quality of the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
35-44, Satisfaction with the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
35-44, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
35-44, Personal well-being: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
35-44, Overweight population: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
35-44, Long-term unemployment: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
35-44, Job satisfaction: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
35-44, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
35-44, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
35-44, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
35-44, Perceived health: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
35-44, Education level: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
35-44, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
35-44, Voluntary work: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
35-44, Trust in other people: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
35-44, Trust in institutions: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
45-54, Perceived health: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
45-54, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
45-54, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
45-54, Quality of the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
45-54, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
45-54, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
45-54, Personal well-being: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
45-54, Long-term unemployment: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
45-54, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
45-54, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
45-54, Trust in other people: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
45-54, Trust in institutions: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
45-54, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
45-54, Education level: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
45-54, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
45-54, Job satisfaction: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
45-54, Voluntary work: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
55-64, Personal well-being: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Perceived health: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Education level: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Long-term unemployment: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Trust in institutions: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
55-64, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
55-64, Job satisfaction: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
55-64, Quality of the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
55-64, Voluntary work: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
55-64, Trust in other people: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
55-64, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
55-64, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
55-64, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
55-64, Satisfaction with the home: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
65-74, Perceived health: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Education level: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Net labour participation: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Long-term unemployment: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Trust in other people: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Trust in institutions: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
65-74, Personal well-being: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
65-74, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
65-74, Voluntary work: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
65-74, Satisfaction with life: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
65-74, Job satisfaction: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
65-74, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
65-74, Quality of the home: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
65-74, Satisfaction with the home: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
65-74, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Perceived health: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Voluntary work: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Trust in other people: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Trust in institutions: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
75 and older, Personal well-being: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
75 and older, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Quality of the home: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Satisfaction with the home: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
75 and older, Education level: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.
75 and older, Net labour participation: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.
75 and older, Long-term unemployment: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.
75 and older, Job satisfaction: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.
75 and older, Satisfaction with commuting time: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.

Highest completed level of education

Low, Satisfaction with life: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Personal well-being: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Perceived health: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Net labour participation: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Long-term unemployment: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Job satisfaction: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Voluntary work: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Trust in other people: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Trust in institutions: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Low, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Low, Quality of the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Low, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Low, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Low, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Low, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Low, Education level: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.
Medium, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Medium, Trust in other people: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Medium, Trust in institutions: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Medium, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Medium, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Medium, Personal well-being: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Medium, Long-term unemployment: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Medium, Job satisfaction: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Medium, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Medium, Quality of the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Medium, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Medium, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Medium, Voluntary work: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Medium, Perceived health: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Medium, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Medium, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Medium, Education level: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.
High, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
High, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
High, Quality of the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
High, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
High, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
High, Satisfaction with life: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Personal well-being: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Perceived health: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Overweight population: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Long-term unemployment: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Job satisfaction: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Voluntary work: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Trust in other people: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Trust in institutions: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
High, Education level: insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2020, insufficient data or insufficient quality in 2019.

Migration background

Native Dutch, Overweight population: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Trust in institutions: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Satisfaction with life: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Personal well-being: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Perceived health: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Education level: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Net labour participation: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Long-term unemployment: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Job satisfaction: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Quality of the home: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Satisfaction with the home: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Voluntary work: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Trust in other people: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Native Dutch, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Western, Net labour participation: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Long-term unemployment: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Job satisfaction: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Voluntary work: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Trust in other people: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Trust in institutions: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Western, Satisfaction with life: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Western, Personal well-being: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Perceived health: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Western, Overweight population: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Western, Quality of the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Western, Satisfaction with the home: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Western, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Western, Education level: well-being higher than national average in 2020, well-being higher than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Satisfaction with life: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Personal well-being: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Perceived health: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Overweight population: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Education level: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Net labour participation: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Long-term unemployment: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Job satisfaction: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Satisfaction with commuting time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Non-western, Satisfaction with leisure time: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Quality of the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Satisfaction with the home: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Contact with family, friends and neighbours: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.
Non-western, Voluntary work: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Trust in other people: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Experience of environmental problems in the local area: well-being lower than national average in 2020, well-being lower than national average in 2019.
Non-western, Trust in institutions: well-being does not differ from national average in 2020, well-being does not differ from national average in 2019.

Education level important

The analysis looked not only at distribution at the level of population groups, but also looked at the cumulative favourable or unfavourable results at individual level, based on data on eleven well-being indicators for each person. Overall cumulative effects of favourable results could be seen for 15 percent of the population and unfavourable results also for 15 percent.

The role of education in particular is clear in these cumulative effects at individual level. It is an exception for people with a low level of education to accumulate favourable results: 2 percent of them show this, while over one-third have an accumulation of unfavourable results. People with high levels of education are more likely to accumulate favourable results: 34 percent of them are at the top of the distribution.

Over one-quarter of people aged 65-74 years are at the bottom of the distribution, while people aged 25-64 years are more likely to be in the top.
The analysis took into account variables age, sex, education level and migration background. If we also take into account the relationships between these variables, the highest completed level of education turns out to be the strongest determinant for the number of indicators for which people have favourable or unfavourable results. This is followed by ages and migration background.

Percentages of each population group at the top, in the middle and at the bottom of the well-being distribution

Sex

13.3%
70.8%
15.8%
15.9%
70.8%
13.4%

Age

10.5%
76.3%
13.2%
10.4%
71.1%
18.5%
10.4%
73%
16.6%
13.4%
67.3%
19.3%
17.1%
65.4%
17.5%
26.1%
67%
6.9%
14.1%
81.8%
4.1%

Highest completed level of education

36%
61.7%
2.2%
10.2%
84%
5.9%
3.8%
62.6%
33.6%

Migration background

12.9%
71%
16%
17.5%
70.3%
12.2%
23.2%
69.6%
7.2%