Personal well-being is determined on the basis of the Personal Well-being Index (PWI). This index is composed of twelve indicators which describe eight dimensions. The dimensions with corresponding indicators are:
1) Material living standard: satisfaction with the financial situation.
2) Economic risks: concerns about the financial future.
3) Education and employment: satisfaction with education opportunities, satisfaction with work or daily activities.
4) Health: satisfaction with physical health, satisfaction with mental health.
5) Social relationships: satisfaction with social life.
6) Social participation and trust: trust in Parliament, trust in judiciary, trust in police force.
7) Safety: feelings of (un)safety.
8) Living environment: satisfaction with the neighbourhood.
For each indicator, the scores have been converted to a score on a scale from 1 to 10. Subsequently, a score was given to each dimension and the eight resulting scores have been combined into one index: the Personal Well-being Index. Each dimension weighs equally heavy in the index. A score of 1 to 4 means a low level, a score of 5 or 6 means an intermediate level and a score of 7 or higher means a high level of personal well-being (Beuningen et al., 2015).