Public transport companies have recently modernised their bus fleets. On 1 January 2002, regular-services buses were on average 9.4 years old, the same age as tourist coaches. Early 2010, the average age of regular-service buses had dropped by 4 years to 5.4 years, whereas the average age of tourist coaches was lowered by only six months.
Passenger Transport Act 2000
Due to the introduction of the Passenger Transport Act 2000 on 1 January 2001, public transport companies have replaced more older buses by new ones. Since then, provinces or urban regions grant concessions to transport companies to provide transport services in a particular urban area or region. The maximum duration period of the concession is 8 years. The concession includes demands regarding the equipment used by the transport companies. The emission demands that have to be met by new buses are expressed in euro standards and have become more and more rigid in recent years. The replacement rate of public transport buses was stepped up to comply with the new standards.
Average age buses on 1 January
Nine in ten regular-service buses run on diesel
Although the number of diesel buses used in public transport has declined by 5 percent since 2002, they still constitute the vast majority. The amount of harmful substances emitted by the new generation of diesel engines has been reduced dramatically. Early last year, 91 percent of regular-service buses ran on diesel and 6 percent on gas.
Electrical and hybrid buses make up less than 1 percent of the regular-service bus fleet. Three quarters of this category is made up by the more than 40 trolley buses operating in the city of Arnhem.
Regular-service buses by type of fuel on 1 January
Regular-service buses cover more kilometres annually than tourist coaches
Altogether, Dutch buses covered more than 710 million kilometres in 2009. Regular-service buses accounted for nearly two thirds. The increase in 2009 compared to 2001 was more than 10 percent. The overall distance covered by tourist coaches in the same period dropped by 16 percent.
On average, regular-service buses annually cover more kilometres than tourist coaches: in 2008, regular-service buses averaged 67 thousand kilometres versus 41 thousand kilometres for tourist coaches.
Annual distance covered by buses