Highereconomic growth in big cities
Economic growth in Amsterdam, Utrecht and The Hague has been higher than GDPfor a number of years now. In Rotterdam economic is growth lagging behind thethree other big cities.
Above average growth
In 2003 all four metropolitan regions showed economic growth rates higher than thegrowth rate for the gross domestic product (GDP).Economic growth in Utrecht, Amsterdam and The Hague wasabove average in the period 1995–2003.
Economic growth, 2003
Big cities account for 30 percent of GDP
The four metropolitan regions generate 30 percent of Dutch GDP, while only23 percent of the Dutch population live in these areas. The share of GDPgenerated in the capital Amsterdam is just over 11 percent.
The shares of the respective cities shift very slowly. The total share of theDutch big cities in the Dutch economy rose from 29.4 to 30.3 percent between1995 and 2003. The share of Rotterdam fell (slightly) in this period.
Share of four big cities in GDP
Services in Utrecht and Amsterdam
The differences in economic growth between the regions are largelydetermined by differences in the economic structures of the cities.
Financial and business services grew by more than average in the period 1995–2000.These activities are strongly represented in Utrecht and Amsterdam. The economicperformance in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam was tempered from 2001 bylow and even negative growth in trade, hotels and restaurants, and transport andstorage. The capital Amsterdam (including Schiphol Airport) was affected by theconsequences of the terrorist attacks in the United States and the SARS epidemicin Asia.
Economic structure, 2003
Government in The Hague, manufacturing in Rotterdam
Government accounts for more than a quarter of the economy in The Hague. Theaverage growth rate in the period 1995–2003 for government was 1.6 percent. Inaddition to transport, Rotterdam has a relatively large share in manufacturing.The average annual growth in value added in manufacturing was no more than 1percent (1995–2003).
Shifts in economic structure
Compared with 1995 the Netherlands had become e even more of aservices-based economy in 2003. The share of service activities, both commercialand non-commercial, rose to 84 percent in the four metropolitan regions,compared with 73 percent for the country as a whole. The highest share forservices was in Amsterdam: 88 percent.
Edgar Angus and Paul Mangoenkarso