Avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2

Avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2

Energy sources/techniques Energy application Periods Avoided use of fossil energy Avoided energy (TJ) Avoided carbon dioxide emission (CO2) Avoided emission (kton)
Total energy sources Total energy applications 2021 415,724 27,960
Total energy sources Total energy applications 2022** 467,318 30,869
Hydro power Total energy applications 2021 721 46
Hydro power Total energy applications 2022** 705 45
Wind energy, total Total energy applications 2021 151,090 9,548
Wind energy, total Total energy applications 2022** 173,983 11,024
Wind energy on shore Total energy applications 2021 83,319 5,265
Wind energy on shore Total energy applications 2022** 105,714 6,698
Wind energy off shore Total energy applications 2021 67,771 4,283
Wind energy off shore Total energy applications 2022** 68,270 4,326
Solar energy Total energy applications 2021 91,334 5,763
Solar energy Total energy applications 2022** 140,370 8,885
Solar photovoltaic Total energy applications 2021 90,080 5,693
Solar photovoltaic Total energy applications 2022** 139,113 8,814
Solar thermal, total Total energy applications 2021 1,254 71
Solar thermal, total Total energy applications 2022** 1,258 71
Solar thermal, covered systems <= 6 m2 Total energy applications 2021
Solar thermal, covered systems <= 6 m2 Total energy applications 2022**
Solar thermal, covered systems > 6 m2 Total energy applications 2021
Solar thermal, covered systems > 6 m2 Total energy applications 2022**
Solar thermal, uncovered systems Total energy applications 2021
Solar thermal, uncovered systems Total energy applications 2022**
Total geothermal energy Total energy applications 2021 11,440 621
Total geothermal energy Total energy applications 2022** 12,143 658
Deep geothermal heat Total energy applications 2021 6,330 352
Deep geothermal heat Total energy applications 2022** 6,785 378
Total shallow geothermal energy Total energy applications 2021 5,110 268
Total shallow geothermal energy Total energy applications 2022** 5,358 280
Shallow geothermal heat, total Total energy applications 2021 3,845 189
Shallow geothermal heat, total Total energy applications 2022** 4,055 198
Shallow geothermal heat, heat pumps Total energy applications 2021 3,658 178
Shallow geothermal heat, heat pumps Total energy applications 2022** 3,865 187
Shal geothermal heat, without heat pumps Total energy applications 2021 187 11
Shal geothermal heat, without heat pumps Total energy applications 2022** 190 11
Shallow geothermal cold Total energy applications 2021 1,265 80
Shallow geothermal cold Total energy applications 2022** 1,304 83
Aerothermal heat, total Total energy applications 2021 3,535 99
Aerothermal heat, total Total energy applications 2022** 4,345 105
Total biomass Total energy applications 2021 157,604 11,883
Total biomass Total energy applications 2022** 135,771 10,152
Municipal waste; renewable fraction Total energy applications 2021 23,926 1,446
Municipal waste; renewable fraction Total energy applications 2022** 23,743 1,439
Co-firing of biomass in electr. plants Total energy applications 2021 56,488 5,349
Co-firing of biomass in electr. plants Total energy applications 2022** 46,029 4,359
Total biomass households Total energy applications 2021 11,389 642
Total biomass households Total energy applications 2022** 11,507 650
Biomass households, open fireplaces Total energy applications 2021 194 11
Biomass households, open fireplaces Total energy applications 2022** 187 11
Biomass households, inserts Total energy applications 2021 1,631 92
Biomass households, inserts Total energy applications 2022** 1,644 93
Biomass households, wood stoves Total energy applications 2021 7,726 436
Biomass households, wood stoves Total energy applications 2022** 7,723 436
Biomass households, pellet stoves Total energy applications 2021 1,838 104
Biomass households, pellet stoves Total energy applications 2022** 1,953 110
Biomass households, charcoal use Total energy applications 2021
Biomass households, charcoal use Total energy applications 2022**
Biomass boilers companies, total Total energy applications 2021 25,134 1,443
Biomass boilers companies, total Total energy applications 2022** 19,306 1,099
Biomass boilers companies, CHP Total energy applications 2021 10,071 593
Biomass boilers companies, CHP Total energy applications 2022** 5,072 295
Biomass boilers companies, heat only Total energy applications 2021 15,064 850
Biomass boilers companies, heat only Total energy applications 2022** 14,234 804
Total biogas Total energy applications 2021 12,927 798
Total biogas Total energy applications 2022** 9,506 594
Biogas from landfills Total energy applications 2021 324 20
Biogas from landfills Total energy applications 2022** 367 23
Biogas from sewage water purification Total energy applications 2021 2,158 134
Biogas from sewage water purification Total energy applications 2022** 1,911 120
Biogas, co-digestion of manure Total energy applications 2021 5,832 361
Biogas, co-digestion of manure Total energy applications 2022** 3,860 243
Other biogas Total energy applications 2021 4,614 283
Other biogas Total energy applications 2022** 3,369 209
Liquid biofuels for transport, total Total energy applications 2021 27,739 2,204
Liquid biofuels for transport, total Total energy applications 2022** 25,679 2,011
Biogasoline Total energy applications 2021 9,766 720
Biogasoline Total energy applications 2022** 10,512 759
Biodiesel Total energy applications 2021 17,973 1,484
Biodiesel Total energy applications 2022** 15,167 1,252
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Dataset is not available.


The use of renewable energy avoids the use of fossil energy and as a consequence avoids emission of CO2. Renewable energy is energy from wind, hydro power, the sun, the earth, heat from outdoor air and biomass. This is energy from natural processes that is replenished constantly.

Figures are presented in an absolute way, as well as related to the total emission of carbon dioxide in the Netherlands.

Avoiding the use of fossil energy and avoiding emission of carbon dioxide are important underlying aims for stimulation of the use of renewable energy.

The figures are broken down into energy source/technique and into application (electricity, heat and transport).

From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass will apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2018). Only solid and gaseous biomass compliant according to these criteria are used to determine the avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2 in 2021.
An exception applies to the biogas used for bio-methane production. The current methodology doesn’t discern sustainable from non-sustainable biogas used for bio-methane production. This differs from the methodology used for gross final energy consumption that is the basis of most statistics on renewable energy.


Data available from:
1990

Status of the figures:
This table contains definite figures up to and including 2021 and revised provisional figures for 2022.

Changes as of December 14th 2023
Figures have been adjusted for 2021 and 2022.
As of 2022 final energy consumption of bio jet kerosene is reported in the Netherlands. This bio jet kerosene is used by the aviation sector, which is not counted toward the total primary energy consumption (the denominator of the share of renewable energy in terms of the avoided use of primary fossil energy). This is why bio jet kerosene is not reported in this table.

Changes as of June 30th 2023
Provisional figures added for 2022, revised provisional figures adjusted for 2021.
From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass will apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2018). Only solid and gaseous biomass compliant according to these criteria are used to determine the avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2 in 2021.
An exception applies to the biogas used for bio-methane production. The current methodology doesn’t discern sustainable from non-sustainable biogas used for bio-methane production. This differs from the methodology used for gross final energy consumption that is the basis of most statistics on renewable energy.

Changes as of February 8th 2023
Revised provisional figures added for 2021.
Figures for 2020 are definite.
From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass will apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2018). Only solid and gaseous biomass compliant according to these criteria are used to determine the avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2 in 2021.
Figures for 2020 and before were calculated based on RED I; in accordance with Eurostat these figures will not be modified anymore. This may result in inconsistencies with other tables.

Changes as of July 2022:
Revised provisional figures added for 2021.
From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass will apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2018). It is currently unclear whether all biomass consumed in the Netherlands meets these new sustainability criteria. This has an impact on the calculation of the avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2. For the cases where this uncertainty applies a “.“ is displayed.


When will new figures be published?
Provisional figures: June of the following year.
Revised provisional figures: December of the following year.
Definite figures: December of the second following year.

Description topics

Avoided use of fossil energy
The avoided use of fossil primary energy is the amount of fossil (and nuclear) energy that would have been used if renewable energy was not used.
The avoided use of fossil primary energy is the sum of:
1. The avoided use of fossil primary energy by the domestic production of electricity, heat and gas from renewable sources.
2. The avoided use of fossil energy by the biofuels for road transport sold on the domestic market.
Imports and exports of green electricity is not included.
Avoided energy
In this table, the unit TeraJoule (TJ) is used. This equals 1,000,000,000,000 joules (10 to the power of 12). A joule is a unit of energy equivalent to 0.24 calories. A TJ is equivalent to 31 600 cubic meters of natural gas or 278 000 kilowatt-hours of electricity.
Avoided carbon dioxide emission (CO2)
The amount of carbon dioxide that is emitted if no use is made of renewable energy technology. The amount of carbon dioxide is calculated in accordance with the methodology of the Protocol Monitoring Renewable Energy (AgentschapNL, 2010). It covers domestic production of renewable electricity, heat and gas. Imports of green electricity is not included.
This methodology only considers the avoided emission by the use of the renewable energy at the final stage: production of renewable electricity, heat and gas. The earlier stages are not included. For biofuels for road transport greenhouse gas emissions of the earlier stages may be substantial. Therefore, for these biofuels no avoided CO2 emissions are published.
Avoided emission
1 kton = 1,000 ton = 1 million kg.