Renewable energy; consumption by energy source, technology and application

Renewable energy; consumption by energy source, technology and application

Energy sources and techniques Energy application Periods Final consumption (TJ) Final consumption relative (% total energy cons.)
Wind energy, total Total energy applications 2023** 96,147 5.31
Wind energy on shore Total energy applications 2023** 56,653 3.13
Wind energy off shore Total energy applications 2023** 39,494 2.18
Solar energy Total energy applications 2023** 73,149 4.04
Total geothermal energy Total energy applications 2023** 13,176 0.73
Total shallow geothermal energy Total energy applications 2023** 6,643 0.37
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Dataset is not available.

This table expresses the use of renewable energy as gross final consumption of energy. Figures are presented in an absolute way, as well as related to the total energy use in the Netherlands.
The total gross final energy consumption in the Netherlands (the denominator used to calculate the percentage of renewable energy per ‘Energy sources and techniques’) can be found in the table as ‘Total, including non-renewables’ and Energy application ‘Total’.
The gross final energy consumption for the energy applications ‘Electricity’ and ‘Heat’ are also available. With these figures the percentages of the different energy sources and applications can be calculated; these values are not available in this table.
The gross final energy consumption for ‘Transport’ is not available because of the complexity to calculate this. More information on this can be found in the yearly publication ‘Hernieuwbare energie in Nederland’.

Renewable energy is energy from wind, hydro power, the sun, the earth, heat from outdoor air and biomass. This is energy from natural processes that is replenished constantly.

The figures are broken down into energy source/technique and into energy application (electricity, heat and transport).

This table focuses on the share of renewable energy according to the EU Renewable Energy Directive. Under this directive, countries can apply an administrative transfer by purchasing renewable energy from countries that have consumed more renewable energy than the agreed target. For 2020, the Netherlands has implemented such a transfer by purchasing renewable energy from Denmark. This transfer has been made visible in this table as a separate energy source/technique and two totals are included; a total with statistical transfer and a total without statistical transfer.

Data available from:

Status of the figures:
This table contains definite figures up to and including 2021, figures of 2022 and 2023 are revised provisional figures.

Changes as of June 7th 2024
Revised provisional figures of 2023 have been added.

Changes as of March 2024:
Figures of the total energy applications of biogas, co-digestion of manure and other biogas have been restored for 2021 and 2022. The final energy consumption of non-compliant biogas (according to RED II) was wrongly included in the total final consumption of these types of biogas. Figures of total biogas, total biomass and total renewable energy were not influenced by this and therefore not adjusted.

Changes as of November 2023:
Figures of 2021 and 2022 have been updated. The status for figures of 2021 is now definite and the status for figures of 2022 is revised provisional.
A new category "Total, including non-renewables" has been added from 1990 and further. Also the category "Biokerosene" has been added since 2022.

Changes as of June 2nd 2023:
Provisional figures added for 2022.
From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (REDII). Only compliant biomass is included in the figures from 2021 onwards.

Changes as of February 8th 2023
The figures for co-firing of biomass in electricity plants have been updated for 2021.
After exchanges with the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO), in charge of securing the sustainability of subsidised solid biomass for electricity and heat, it has been concluded that the solid biomass used in co-firing plants was 100% RED II compliant with respect to biomass sustainability in 2021. This results in a 14 PJ higher final energy consumption of biomass for co-firing plants than the update in December 2022 and in an increase of the share of renewable energy of 0,7 percentage point. RED II refers to the EU Renewable Energy Directive which came into force in 2021.

Changes as of December 15th 2022:
Revised provisional figures of 2021 have been added.
Only solid and gaseous biomass compliant according to REDII are used to determine the final energy consumption of these energy sources in 2021.
Figures for 2020 and before were calculated based on RED I; in accordance with Eurostat these figures will not be modified anymore. Inconsistencies with other tables undergoing updates may occur.

When will new figures be published?
Provisional figures on the gross final consumption of renewable energy in broad outlines for the previous year are published each year in May. Revised provisional figures for the previous year appear each year in June.

In December all figures on the consumption of renewable energy in the previous year will be published. These figures remain revised provisional, definite figures appear in December two years after the reporting year. Most important (expected) changes between revised provisional figures in December and definite figures a year later are the figures on solar photovoltaic energy. The figures on the share of total energy consumption in the Netherlands could also still be changed by the availability of adjusted figures on total energy consumption.

Description topics

Final consumption
In this table, the unit TeraJoule (TJ) is used. This equals 1,000,000,000,000 joules (10 to the power of 12). A joule is a unit of energy equivalent to 0.24 calories. A TJ is equivalent to 31 600 cubic meters of natural gas or 278 000 kilowatt-hours of electricity.
Final consumption relative
Gross final consumption of renewable energy as percentage of total gross final energetic energy consumption, calculated according the definitions from the EU directive on renewable energy from 2009. Total gross final energetic energy consumption is the sum of three parts:
1. Energetic final use of the end use sectors manufacturing industry (excluding refineries), households, services, agriculture, fishing and transport.
2. Distribution losses of electricity and heat
3. Own use of electricity and heat by the producers of electricity and sold heat.