Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Periods GDP from the output Value at current prices Output at basic prices (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Intermediate consumption (-) (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross domestic product (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices Total (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices A Agriculture, forestry and fishing (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices F Construction (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices J Information and communication (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices K Financial institutions (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices L Renting, buying, selling real estate (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices M-N Business services (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (million euros) GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices R-U Culture, recreation, other services (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Output at basic prices (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Intermediate consumption (-) (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross domestic product (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices Total (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices A Agriculture, forestry and fishing (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices F Construction (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices J Information and communication (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices K Financial institutions (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices L Renting, buying, selling real estate (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices M-N Business services (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices R-U Culture, recreation, other services (million euros) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Output at basic prices (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices Total (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices A Agriculture, forestry and fishing (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices F Construction (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices J Information and communication (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices K Financial institutions (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices L Renting, buying, selling real estate (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices M-N Business services (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (%) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices R-U Culture, recreation, other services (%) GDP from the output Price indices Output at basic prices (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices Total (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices A Agriculture, forestry and fishing (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices F Construction (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices J Information and communication (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices K Financial institutions (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices L Renting, buying, selling real estate (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices M-N Business services (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (2015 =100) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices R-U Culture, recreation, other services (2015 =100) GDP from the generation of income Value at current prices Gross domestic product (million euros) GDP from the generation of income Value at prices of 2015 Gross domestic product (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Gross domestic product (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at prices of 2015 Gross domestic product (million euros)
2021* 1,653,634 891,070 856,356 762,564 13,247 40,100 156,442 41,932 44,709 59,206 111,563 167,484 13,330 1,493,745 807,252 763,283 686,256 12,672 34,395 139,918 40,422 50,570 44,660 99,940 142,377 11,894 3.9 5.2 2.4 2.1 8.2 7.1 -0.7 2.5 7.1 4.6 -4.0 110.7 111.1 104.5 116.6 111.8 103.7 88.4 132.6 111.6 117.6 112.1 856,356 763,283 856,356 763,283
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table presents annual data on the output components, the final expenditure categories and the income components of gross domestic product of the Netherlands. In the national accounts gross domestic product is approached from three points of view: from the output, from the generation of income and from the final expenditure. Gross domestic product is a main macroeconomic indicator. The volume change of gross domestic product is a measure for the economic growth of a country.

Data available from: 1995.

Status of the figures:
Data from 1995 up to and including 2020 are final. Data of 2021 are provisional.

Changes as of June 24th 2022:
Data of 2021 have been added to this table.

When will new figures be published?
Provisional data are published 6 months after the end of the reporting year. Final data are released 18 months after the end of the reporting year.

Description topics

GDP from the output
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called production approach. In this approach GDP equals the sum of value added over all branches (including non-commercial ones). Value added is thereby registered at basic prices. GDP at market prices is obtained by adding taxes less subsidies on production and the difference between imputed and paid VAT. The included taxes and subsidies apply both to produced and imported goods and services. Examples of these are VAT and taxes on import.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
Output at basic prices
The ensemble of goods and services produced. Also called production. Three types of output are distinguished:
- market output: goods and services sold at a market or intended for sale at a market
- the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers for their own final consumption or gross fixed capital formation.
- non-market output: goods and services delivered for free or at economically non-significant prices to other units

Output is valued at basic prices. These are the prices experienced by the producers: product-related taxes have been subtracted from the original prices, subsidies haven been added to them. Costs of transportation, when charged separately by the producer, are not included. Changes in the values of financial and non-financial assets during the reference period are not included either.

Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, including those that are held by foreign owners. The kind-of-activity units include general government units and other non-commercial units.
Intermediate consumption (-)
Goods and services used as input in a production process, with the exception of capital goods. Intermediate consumption consists of goods reshaped into other goods or consumed entirely in the course of the production process (by definition, this holds for all hired services). According to international standards an acquired good or hired service is classified as a fixed asset rather than intermediate consumption when it lasts over one year in a production process. Goods and services that are part of intermediate consumption are valued at market prices at the time they were used.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
Total
A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
F Construction
Construction
G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering
Trade, transport, hotels, catering
This category is made up of the categories:
G Wholesale and retail trade
H Transportation and storage
I Accommodation and food serving
J Information and communication
Information and communication
K Financial institutions
Financial institutions
L Renting, buying, selling real estate
Renting, buying, selling of real estate
M-N Business services
Business services
This category is made up of the categories:
M Consultancy, research and other specialised business services
N Renting and leasing of tangible goods and other business support services
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
R-U Culture, recreation, other services
Culture, recreation, other services
This category is made up of the categories:
R Culture, sports and recreation
S Other service activities
T Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and service- producing activities of households for own use
U Extraterritorial organisations
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.
Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
Output at basic prices
The ensemble of goods and services produced. Also called production. Three types of output are distinguished:
- market output: goods and services sold at a market or intended for sale at a market
- the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers for their own final consumption or gross fixed capital formation.
- non-market output: goods and services delivered for free or at economically non-significant prices to other units

Output is valued at basic prices. These are the prices experienced by the producers: product-related taxes have been subtracted from the original prices, subsidies haven been added to them. Costs of transportation, when charged separately by the producer, are not included. Changes in the values of financial and non-financial assets during the reference period are not included either.

Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, including those that are held by foreign owners. The kind-of-activity units include general government units and other non-commercial units.
Intermediate consumption (-)
Goods and services used as input in a production process, with the exception of capital goods. Intermediate consumption consists of goods reshaped into other goods or consumed entirely in the course of the production process (by definition, this holds for all hired services). According to international standards an acquired good or hired service is classified as a fixed asset rather than intermediate consumption when it lasts over one year in a production process. Goods and services that are part of intermediate consumption are valued at market prices at the time they were used.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
Total
A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
F Construction
Construction
G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering
Trade, transport, hotels, catering
This category is made up of the categories:
G Wholesale and retail trade
H Transportation and storage
I Accommodation and food serving
J Information and communication
Information and communication
K Financial institutions
Financial institutions
L Renting, buying, selling real estate
Renting, buying, selling of real estate
M-N Business services
Business services
This category is made up of the categories:
M Consultancy, research and other specialised business services
N Renting and leasing of tangible goods and other business support services
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
R-U Culture, recreation, other services
Culture, recreation, other services
This category is made up of the categories:
R Culture, sports and recreation
S Other service activities
T Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and service- producing activities of households for own use
U Extraterritorial organisations
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.
Volume changes on previous year
Volume changes on previous year
The weighted average of the changes in the quantity and quality of the components of a certain goods or service transaction or balancing item, annual percentage changes.
Output at basic prices
The ensemble of goods and services produced. Also called production. Three types of output are distinguished:
- market output: goods and services sold at a market or intended for sale at a market
- the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers for their own final consumption or gross fixed capital formation.
- non-market output: goods and services delivered for free or at economically non-significant prices to other units

Output is valued at basic prices. These are the prices experienced by the producers: product-related taxes have been subtracted from the original prices, subsidies haven been added to them. Costs of transportation, when charged separately by the producer, are not included. Changes in the values of financial and non-financial assets during the reference period are not included either.

Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, including those that are held by foreign owners. The kind-of-activity units include general government units and other non-commercial units.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
Total
A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
F Construction
Construction
G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering
Trade, transport, hotels, catering
This category is made up of the categories:
G Wholesale and retail trade
H Transportation and storage
I Accommodation and food serving
J Information and communication
Information and communication
K Financial institutions
Financial institutions
L Renting, buying, selling real estate
Renting, buying, selling of real estate
M-N Business services
Business services
This category is made up of the categories:
M Consultancy, research and other specialised business services
N Renting and leasing of tangible goods and other business support services
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
R-U Culture, recreation, other services
Culture, recreation, other services
This category is made up of the categories:
R Culture, sports and recreation
S Other service activities
T Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and service- producing activities of households for own use
U Extraterritorial organisations
Price indices
The weighted average of the price changes of the components of a certain variable. Deflators relative to the reference year 2015.
Output at basic prices
The ensemble of goods and services produced. Also called production. Three types of output are distinguished:
- market output: goods and services sold at a market or intended for sale at a market
- the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers for their own final consumption or gross fixed capital formation.
- non-market output: goods and services delivered for free or at economically non-significant prices to other units

Output is valued at basic prices. These are the prices experienced by the producers: product-related taxes have been subtracted from the original prices, subsidies haven been added to them. Costs of transportation, when charged separately by the producer, are not included. Changes in the values of financial and non-financial assets during the reference period are not included either.

Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, including those that are held by foreign owners. The kind-of-activity units include general government units and other non-commercial units.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
Total
A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Agriculture, forestry and fishing
F Construction
Construction
G-I Trade, transport, hotels, catering
Trade, transport, hotels, catering
This category is made up of the categories:
G Wholesale and retail trade
H Transportation and storage
I Accommodation and food serving
J Information and communication
Information and communication
K Financial institutions
Financial institutions
L Renting, buying, selling real estate
Renting, buying, selling of real estate
M-N Business services
Business services
This category is made up of the categories:
M Consultancy, research and other specialised business services
N Renting and leasing of tangible goods and other business support services
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
R-U Culture, recreation, other services
Culture, recreation, other services
This category is made up of the categories:
R Culture, sports and recreation
S Other service activities
T Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and service- producing activities of households for own use
U Extraterritorial organisations
GDP from the generation of income
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called income approach. In this approach the components are the incomes generated from production activities: compensation of employees and operating surplus / mixed income. To remain consistent with GDP at market prices, taxes less subsidies on production and imports (not necessarily product-related) are added.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.
Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.
GDP from the final expenditure
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called expenditure approach. In this approach the components are consumption by households, consumption by the general government, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports, minus imports. Consumption, fixed capital formation and changes in inventories add up to the so-called national final expenditure. By adding exports final expenditure is obtained. Intermediate consumption, goods and services used upon production, is not part of final expenditure.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.
Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.