Health and health care; personal characteristics

Health and health care; personal characteristics

Characteristics persons Margins Periods Self-perceived health: good or very good (%) Poor mental health, 12 years or older (%) Chronic disorders 1 or more chronic disorders (%) Functional limitations Persons with a GALI limitation (%) Functional limitations Sleeping problems, 12 years or older (%) Medication, last 14 days Persons with prescribed medicines (%) Medication, last 14 days Persons with non-prescribed medicines (%) Medical contacts Contact with GP % persons with at least 1 contact (%) Medical contacts Contact with the dentist % persons with at least 1 contact (%) SF-12 health measure, age 12 or older Norm score physical (number) SF-12 health measure, age 12 or older Norm score Psychological (number)
Total Value 2020 81.5 11.9 30.9 28.3 21.3 39.4 39.8 64.8 78.8 50.2 51.0
Sex: Male Value 2020 83.5 9.3 28.8 24.7 16.4 37.2 33.1 58.8 77.0 51.0 52.2
Sex: Female Value 2020 79.5 14.4 33.1 31.8 26.1 41.6 46.5 70.8 80.5 49.4 49.9
Age: 0 to 11 years Value 2020 96.9 . 9.9 . . 12.5 32.1 56.2 76.1 . .
Age: 12 to 17 years Value 2020 92.7 7.2 13.3 11.7 15.4 19.2 28.5 50.5 93.3 54.6 52.6
Age: 18 years or older Value 2020 78.1 12.3 35.7 31.9 21.8 45.3 42.0 67.4 78.0 49.9 50.9
Level of educ.: pre-prim.and prim. educ. Value 2020 57.1 16.3 51.8 52.3 27.5 66.1 37.0 75.2 64.1 44.1 50.9
Level of educ.: lower sec. education Value 2020 66.0 14.9 47.8 43.7 26.6 63.9 37.5 72.7 70.6 46.5 51.4
Level of educ.:upper secondary Value 2020 78.1 11.6 38.7 34.2 22.4 47.7 43.8 67.2 80.0 49.4 51.4
Level of educ: bachelor degrees Value 2020 83.6 10.8 30.7 26.1 18.8 37.0 47.5 66.1 80.9 51.8 50.7
Level of educ: master degrees and doc. Value 2020 90.5 8.8 27.9 20.4 16.3 35.4 44.3 62.1 85.7 52.6 51.1
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table contains data on the perceived state of health and on contacts with providers of medical care of the Dutch population in private households. These data can be grouped by several personal characteristics.

Data available from: 2014

Status of the data: final.

Changes as of 5 March 2021:
The figures for 2020 have been added. The table was expanded with figures about the SF-12. The 'Short Format 12' or the SF-12 questionnaire for short is a selection of 12 questions from the SF-36.
Based on this questionnaire, the summary measure for physical health (norm score physical) and a summary measure for psychological health (norm score psychological) were calculated and added to the table. The results of the 12 separate items were also included.
In addition, the value (and associated lower and upper limit) for oral health has omitted for the 12 to 16 year olds age group and the 12 to 18 year old age group in 2019. These figures were only related to the age 15 year or 15 to 18 year because the question was posed to people 15 years of age or older.

When will new data be published?
Data on reporting year 2021 will be published in the second quarter of 2022.

Description topics

Self-perceived health: good or very good
Percentage of persons who answered ꞌgoodꞌ or ꞌvery goodꞌ to the question: ꞌHow do you assess your general state of health?ꞌ / ꞌHow does your child assess his, her general state of health?ꞌ. Parents or caretakers answer this question on behalf of children under the age of 12 years.

Poor mental health, 12 years or older
Percentage of persons of 12 years or older that scores less than 60 on the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) for adolescents from 12 years of age and grown-ups. The figures relate to the Mental Health Inventory 5 or ꞌMHI-5ꞌ. This is an international standard for a specific measuring of psychic health, consisting of 5 questions. MHI-5 is actually an extract of ꞌShort Format 36ꞌ (SF-36), an elaborate international standard for measuring health. MHI-5 deals with questions related to how one felt during the last 4 weeks. The following questions were asked:
1. Did you feel very nervous?
2. Were you so down in the dump that nothing could cheer you up?
3. Did you feel calm and quiet?
4. Did you feel depressed and down?
5. Were you happy?
Every question has the following 6 answer categories: all the time-most of the time-often-sometimes-rarely-never. The answer categories in positively worded questions of the MHI questionnaire (questions 3 and 5) have been consequently awarded the values 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0. The answer categories in negatively worded questions (questions 1, 2 ad 4) have been awarded the turned-down values. Next, per person the sum scores have been calculated and multiplied by 4, so that the minimum sum score of a person can be 0 (very unhealthy) and the maximum score 100 (perfectly healthy). A score of 60 or more means that a respondent can be qualified psychically healthy and a score of less than 60 psychically unhealthy.
Chronic disorders
All respondents are asked: ꞌDo you /Does your child have one or more chronic disorders?ꞌ Chronic means (in anticipation) 6 months or longer. Next, 23 disorders and a remainder category 'other disorders' are presented and persons are asked if they had this disorder during the last 12 months. Persons are asked after 3 of these disorders if they ever suffered from it. Besides (more elaborately) is asked after diabetes. Most questions on specific chronic disorders are being asked to persons of all ages. Questions on disorders that do not occur amongst youngsters are posed to persons of 12 years or older.
1 or more chronic disorders
Percentage of persons who answered ꞌyesꞌ to the question: ꞌDo you / Does your child suffer from one or more chronic illnesses or disorders?ꞌ Chronic is (in anticipation) 6 months or longer.
Functional limitations
Functional limitations
Functional limitations (physical) are observed by means of 3 groups of questions:
a. The OECD indicator for persons in the age category of 12 years or older.
b. The ADL (Activities of Daily Living) indicator for persons in the age category of 55 years or older.
c. Temporary activity limitations and bed-days for persons of all ages.
Persons with a GALI limitation
Percentage of persons that for at least the past 6 months are limited because of a health problem in activities people/children usually do. This internationally used and adjusted indicator for health limitations is called the GALI, which stands for Global Activity Limitation Indicator. This indicator is calculated for all persons 4 years and older.
In 2014, this indicator was calculated by use of 2 questions, in 2015 both questions are combined in 1 question. This had no effect on the outcome.
Sleeping problems, 12 years or older
Percentage of persons aged 12 years or older that answered ‘somewhat’, ‘much’, ‘very much’ to the question: ‘How much were you bothered by sleeping problems in the last 2 weeks? Think about trouble falling asleep, trouble sleeping through the night, waking up too early.’.
Medication, last 14 days
These questions deal with the use of medicine and the use of herbal medicines or vitamins, whether or not prescribed by a physician. The questions are posed to respondents of all ages.
Persons with prescribed medicines
Percentage of persons who in 14 days preceding the inquiry date used medicines prescribed by a physician. The contraceptive pill is not taken into consideration here.
Persons with non-prescribed medicines
Percentage of persons who in 14 days preceding the interview used (herbal) medicines or vitamins that were not prescribed by a physician.
Medical contacts
Persons are asked if they had contact with their GP, specialist, dentist, dental hygienist, orthodontist, physiotherapist, exercise therapist, psychologist, psychotherapist or psychiatrist, and if he or she is treated by alternative healer. Also, if there were hospital admissions or day care admissions, if people have home care and if they had care abroad. Most questions after medical contacts are asked to persons of all ages. Contacts that do not often occur in the case of children are posed from an older age.
Contact with GP
Contacts with the GP are visits to the GP’s practice, home visits and telephonic consults. Contacts with a substitute GP or his/her practice are taken into account here. Contacts with the medical assistant and the nurse are not included. Questions are being asked after the 12 months preceding the interview. The questions are posed to respondents of all ages.
% persons with at least 1 contact
Percentage of persons in the population who contacted a GP at least once in the 12 months preceding the interview.
Contact with the dentist
Visits at the dentist’s. Contacts with the dental hygienist, orthodontist and dental surgeon are not taken into account. The questions are posed to everyone of 1 year or older. It is assumed that children of 0 years of age do not go to the dentist.
% persons with at least 1 contact
Percentage of persons in the population who contacted a dentlist at least once in the 12 months preceding the interview.
SF-12 health measure, age 12 or older
The 'Short Format 12' or SF-12 questionnaire is a selection of 12 questions from the SF-36 (Ware et al., 1995 *). The SF-12 is a widely used international standard of a generic health measure. The SF-12 measures eight health aspects, namely physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health problems, physical pain, general health, vitality (energy / fatigue), social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems and mental health. Based on the 12 questions, two partial scales can be calculated; a summary measure for physical health (norm score physical) and a summary measure for psychological health (norm score psychological).
These norm scores are calculated for people aged 12 or older.
*Ware J.E., Kosinski M., Keller S.D. SF-12: How to score the SF-12 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales. Boston, MA: The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Second Edition, 1995.
Norm score physical
Standard score physical is determined for persons 12 years of age or older. The standard score physical is a summary physical health measure, which is calculated by means of the answers to the SF-12 questionnaire. The American population was used as the reference group in the development of the norm scores. In 1995, the physical health score for the American population was exactly 50. Mean values below 50 indicate less good physical health than in that standard population (American population 1995) and values above 50 indicate better health. For the Dutch population, the average of the physical norm score is slightly higher than 50.
Norm score Psychological
Psychological norm score is determined for people aged 12 or older. The psychological norm score is a summary psychological health measure, which is calculated by means of the answers to the SF-12 questionnaire. The American population was used as the reference group in the development of the norm scores. In 1995, the psychological health score of the American population was exactly 50. Mean values below 50 indicate less good psychological health than in that standard population (American population 1995) and values above 50 indicate better health. For the Dutch population, the average of the psychological norm score is slightly higher than 50.