Graph of cycle: Gross domestic product in constant prices of 2010
The gross domestic product at market prices of 2010.
The gross domestic product (GDP) is the main indicator for the development of the economy. Economic growth is measured in terms of the volume change in GDP. This is the sum of value added generated in the Netherlands.
Value added equals value of production minus value of consumption. Here it is thus the value that is added to the goods and services used in the production process. Consumption does not include services of labour and capital. Value added can be valued at basic prices and at market prices. Value added excluding indirect taxes and subsidies (with the exception of non-product related taxes and subsidies) is called value added at basic prices. If the indirect taxes and subsidies are included, the term value added at market prices is used. The term “gross” also indicates that depreciation is included in value added, and thus also in GDP.
Business Cycle Tracer versus Economic Monitor
As the starting points and methods of the Business Cycle Tracer (BCT) differ from other statistics compiled by Statistics Netherlands, the presentation of various indicators in the BCT may differ from their usual presentation. The main distinctions are explained below.
The BCT focuses on the whole and the combined action of the various business cycle indicators. It does not aim to present an analysis of individual indicators; it is concerned with the cluster, not the individual points in the cluster. However, to enable the combination of the various business cycle indictors in the BCT, the business cycle indicators must be processed and presented in the same way. The specific procedure followed in the BCT is based on methodological considerations and the requirement of uniformity. This presentation may thus differ from the usual presentation of that same indicator. For an analysis of recent developments in a certain indicator, therefore, the relevant page of the Economic Monitor or the press releases of Statistics Netherlands on that subject should be consulted. The BCT does not claim to give a “better” analysis of indicators Statistics Netherlands already publishes; it does claim to present a coherent uniform and total analysis of the economy at a particular moment in time by concentrating on the cyclical component in the development of the indicators.
The indicator in the BCT may differ from its usual presentation on the following aspects:
The BCT uses a “flexible trend”, in most statistics of Statistics Netherlands some form of rigid trend is usually used.
Length of trend
In the BCT, long-term trends must be based on a period of at least a few business cycles, and thus require long series. In practice, continuous series are not available because of trend breaks. This means that in some cases trend breaks must be repaired temporarily, or that a new “synthetic series” must be made (n.b. not claiming to give a better analysis of the indicator concerned, but only to enable calculation of the coordinates of the indicator).
In the BCT developments are “filtered” to some extent, to prevent indicators shooting back and forth from one quadrant to another (“flashing light”). In most statistics of Statistics Netherlands this effect is not filtered out, and the most recent monthly figures (or moving averages) are published.
The BCT portrays the business cycle at a certain moment in time (and thus does not describe the situation for a certain period). This means that the “picture” in the BCT (the position of the indicator in one of the quadrants) will never change (the photo has been taken). Adjustments in certain indicators will thus not be reflected in adjustments of the BCT for a certain point in the past. A movement in the most recent BCT (compared with the BCT at a previous measurement date) may be the result of the addition of a new survey period, but may also be a consequence of the adjustment of an indicator. The BCT thus portrays the “real-time” indicators.
(The above explicitly applies to the coordinates of the BCT but not to the cycles included in the description of the individual indicators: the coordinates of the BCT are exclusively based on the most recent development of the cycles).
Corrections for seasonal/working day effects etc.
In principle, the figures used for the BCT have been corrected for the seasonal effects (which in turn have already been corrected for working day effects). Some statistics are not corrected for seasonal and working day effects, and those that are corrected, are not necessarily corrected using the “standard “processes” necessary for the BCT. Although the usual adjustment processes and presentation of the indicator concerned were taken into account as much as possible in the choice of adjustment criteria for the BCT, differences cannot be entirely excluded.