Difference between balance and increase in debt
Government debt may increase in spite of a realised surplus. This can have three different explanations. First, the government may incur debts for the financing of financial assets, which are not counted towards the government balance. For example, by issuing loans, purchasing shares or depositing money in bank accounts. Second, according to statistical guidelines, cash paid and received in a particular calendar year may be recorded in another accounting year, with the effect that they do not impact the balance of the reporting year, but do impact financing, or vice versa. Finally, debt valuation may offer an explanation. This could be a bond issuance premium, for example. All three of these effects contributed to the increase in government debt over 2022.