Although in 2022, excess mortality was slightly lower than in 2021 and 2020, it was significantly higher than in years with severe flu waves (e.g. 2015 and 2018). No excess mortality occurred in the first three months of 2022, but this changed from end of March onwards, with excess deaths in almost every week as of then. A flu epidemic began in mid-March which lasted for 13 weeks, followed by another flu epidemic as of mid-December. COVID-19 continued to occur as well. In 2020 and 2021, excess mortality largely coincided with COVID-19 mortality. There was no flu epidemic in those years.
|Jaar||Excess mortality (x 1,000)|
Up through September, COVID-19 mortality lower than excess mortality
Causes of death are known for all deaths which were registered up through September 2022 <link>. They included 6,477 deaths due to COVID-19, slightly less than the excess mortality in that period (7.7 thousand). In 2021 and 2020, COVID-19 mortality exceeded excess mortality. Across the entire pandemic, COVID-19 mortality is higher than excess mortality.
|Excess mortality, Jan-Sep (x 1,000)||Excess mortality, Oct-Dec (x 1,000)||COVID-19 mortality, Jan-Sep (x 1,000)||COVID-19 mortality, Oct-Dec (x 1,000)|
Excess mortality in all age groups
In 2022, there were more deaths than expected in all age groups. Excess mortality was lowest among 50 to 64-year-olds (7 percent) and highest among people under the age of 50 (13 percent). Relative to 2021, excess mortality was lower in the three age groups between 50 and 89 years, but higher in both the youngest and the oldest group.
|Expected mortality (x 1,000)||Excess mortality (x 1,000)|
|90 yrs and over||2022*||34.001||3.325|
|90 yrs and over||2021||33.917||2.274|
|90 yrs and over||2020||33.760||2.835|
Excess mortality up among women in particular
Slightly more women than men died last year, similar to the pre-pandemic situation. Among women, mortality was up by 11 percent; among men, by 8 percent. Conversely, male deaths outnumbered female deaths in 2021. In 2020, approximately the same number of men died as women.
More excess deaths among long-term care recipients
In 2022, slightly over 65 thousand people died who were receiving care under the Long-term Care Act (Wlz), such as residents of nursing homes or institutions for the disabled. It was 7.4 thousand more than expected and represented 13 percent excess mortality. Among the rest of the population, excess mortality stood at 6 percent, lower than among the long-term care recipients. There were 104 thousand deaths, 7 thousand more than expected. The group receiving long-term care includes proportionally more elderly and more women than the rest of the population.
Year on year, excess mortality was up among long-term care recipients, but down among the rest of the population.
|Jaar||Long-term care recipients (%)||Rest of the population (%)|
Excess mortality relatively highest in Flevoland, Drenthe and Hollands-Noorden
Excess mortality varies per GGD region. Especially in Flevoland (17 percent), Drenthe (13 percent) and Hollands-Noorden (13 percent), excess mortality was higher than expected. Excess mortality was lowest in Gooi en Vechtstreek (1 percent), South Limburg (5 percent) and Amsterdam (6 percent).
Flevoland also had relatively high excess mortality in 2021 (20 percent). At 11 percent, Drenthe actually had lower excess mortality that year. Hollands-Noorden had roughly the same excess mortality in both years. In 2021, excess mortality was also recorded in GGD regions around the provinces of Zeeland and Limburg.
|GGD region||Statcode||Excess mortality 2021 (%)||Excess mortality 2020 (%)|
|GGD Regio Twente||9.4||11.9||10.5|
|GGD Noord- en Oost-Gelderland||12.4||10.0||10.3|
|Veiligheids- en Gezondheidsregio Gelderland-Midden||11.2||12.0||9.8|
|GGD Regio Utrecht||10.1||9.3||9.1|
|GGD Gooi en Vechtstreek||1.3||8.4||8.2|
|Dienst Gezondheid & Jeugd ZHZ||6.7||13.4||12.0|
|GGD Hart voor Brabant||12.1||11.1||19.3|
Slight increase in life expectancy
Life expectancy at birth rose again in 2022, ending at 80.1 years for men and 83.1 years for women. Relative to 2021, this added 5 months to male and 1 month to female life expectancy. Despite this increase, male life expectancy remained 4 months below the 2019 level and female life expectancy 5 months. On average, life expectancy tends to rise gradually from year to year. However, there was a slight decline during the coronavirus pandemic.
|Jaar||Men (years)||Women (years)|
‘Period life expectancy’ was developed to make statements about how long people live based on current data. It indicates how old people become on average if the mortality probability by age of that year were to apply throughout their lives. Mortality probabilities change every year; consequently, period life expectancy can be interpreted primarily as a summary measure of mortality in a given year.