The US tariffs mentioned here are those which took effect on 18 October 2019 and were imposed on European Union goods. The product details were published in the US Federal Register by The Office of the United States Trade Representative on 9 October 2019. An import tariff is a tax which is introduced on specific overseas commodities by the importing country. Tariffs make imported goods more expensive for the consumer as compared to domestically produced goods.
This research is based on US import data (US Census), as the affected goods are expressed in so-called Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HST) codes, which may only be found in the US data. The amounts (in US dollars) have been converted to euros. It should be noted that not all these goods are affected equally. Aircraft, for example, are subject to a 10 percent surcharge, while all other goods carry a 25 percent tariff. On the other hand, this is not to say (by definition) that aircraft are affected less severely per euro of exports than other exports .