The incomes female self-employed without personnel generate form their own business are considerably lower than those of their male counterparts. Women are also more often active in sectors where wages are lower. Unlike for women, the level of education appears to be irrelevant for the incomes of male self-employed without personnel.
One in three self-employed without personnel are women
In the first quarter of 2012, there were nearly 750 thousand self-employed without personnel: 265 thousand women and 484 thousand men. The number of self-employed men and women without personnel has grown substantially since 2000.
Self-employed without personnel by gender
Gender income gap also found among full-timers
The median income from own business of self-employed without personnel was more than 21 thousand euro in 2010. With 15 thousand euro, female incomes were 40 percent lower than male incomes (26 thousand euro). The number of working hours only partly accounts for the difference. Among full-time self-employed without personnel the gender income gap is still one third.
Median income from own business of self-employed without personnel by weekly working hours, 2010*
Men and women tend to work in different sectors
Apart from the difference in the average number of working hours, the gender income gap is also due to the fact that female self-employed without personnel are more often active in sectors where lower wages are paid. Women, for example, relatively often work in the sector culture, recreation and other services, while men are more often active in the sectors construction and business services.
Education level not always relevant
There is not always a relation between a person’s income from own business and their education level. Generally, higher educated women also earn higher incomes than lower educated women. For male self-employed without personnel, the average income varies around 26 thousand euro, irrespective of their level of education.
Median income from own business of self-employed without personnel by education level, 2010*