In this article ‘judges’ are judges in district courts, which are divided into cantonal, civil, administrative and criminal courts. The cases referred to in the article are cases coming to court for the first time.

There are 19 courts of law in the Netherlands. Depending on the nature and the severity of the case, the court is presided over by one, three or five judges. In addition, a special judge may preside and pronounce a provisional verdict in urgent cases.