Avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2

Avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2

Energy sources/techniques Energy application Periods Avoided use of fossil energy Avoided energy (TJ) Avoided carbon dioxide emission (CO2) Avoided emission (kton)
Total energy sources Total energy applications 2022* 457,386 30,295
Total energy sources Electricity 2022* 368,838 24,756
Total energy sources Heat 2022* 63,088 3,560
Total energy sources Transport 2022* 25,460 1,978
Hydro power Total energy applications 2022* 695 44
Hydro power Electricity 2022* 695 44
Hydro power Heat 2022*
Hydro power Transport 2022*
Wind energy, total Total energy applications 2022* 172,705 10,959
Wind energy, total Electricity 2022* 172,705 10,959
Wind energy, total Heat 2022*
Wind energy, total Transport 2022*
Wind energy on shore Total energy applications 2022* 105,566 6,699
Wind energy on shore Electricity 2022* 105,566 6,699
Wind energy on shore Heat 2022*
Wind energy on shore Transport 2022*
Wind energy off shore Total energy applications 2022* 67,139 4,260
Wind energy off shore Electricity 2022* 67,139 4,260
Wind energy off shore Heat 2022*
Wind energy off shore Transport 2022*
Solar energy Total energy applications 2022* 136,043 8,624
Solar energy Electricity 2022* 134,790 8,553
Solar energy Heat 2022* 1,254 71
Solar energy Transport 2022*
Solar photovoltaic Total energy applications 2022* 134,790 8,553
Solar photovoltaic Electricity 2022* 134,790 8,553
Solar photovoltaic Heat 2022*
Solar photovoltaic Transport 2022*
Solar thermal, total Total energy applications 2022* 1,254 71
Solar thermal, total Electricity 2022*
Solar thermal, total Heat 2022* 1,254 71
Solar thermal, total Transport 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems <= 6 m2 Total energy applications 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems <= 6 m2 Electricity 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems <= 6 m2 Heat 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems <= 6 m2 Transport 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems > 6 m2 Total energy applications 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems > 6 m2 Electricity 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems > 6 m2 Heat 2022*
Solar thermal, covered systems > 6 m2 Transport 2022*
Solar thermal, uncovered systems Total energy applications 2022*
Solar thermal, uncovered systems Electricity 2022*
Solar thermal, uncovered systems Heat 2022*
Solar thermal, uncovered systems Transport 2022*
Total geothermal energy Total energy applications 2022* 12,197 651
Total geothermal energy Electricity 2022*
Total geothermal energy Heat 2022* 12,197 651
Total geothermal energy Transport 2022*
Deep geothermal heat Total energy applications 2022* 6,797 378
Deep geothermal heat Electricity 2022*
Deep geothermal heat Heat 2022* 6,797 378
Deep geothermal heat Transport 2022*
Total shallow geothermal energy Total energy applications 2022* 5,400 273
Total shallow geothermal energy Electricity 2022*
Total shallow geothermal energy Heat 2022* 5,400 273
Total shallow geothermal energy Transport 2022*
Shallow geothermal heat, total Total energy applications 2022* 4,135 202
Shallow geothermal heat, total Electricity 2022*
Shallow geothermal heat, total Heat 2022* 4,135 202
Shallow geothermal heat, total Transport 2022*
Shallow geothermal heat, heat pumps Total energy applications 2022* 3,948 191
Shallow geothermal heat, heat pumps Electricity 2022*
Shallow geothermal heat, heat pumps Heat 2022* 3,948 191
Shallow geothermal heat, heat pumps Transport 2022*
Shal geothermal heat, without heat pumps Total energy applications 2022* 187 11
Shal geothermal heat, without heat pumps Electricity 2022*
Shal geothermal heat, without heat pumps Heat 2022* 187 11
Shal geothermal heat, without heat pumps Transport 2022*
Shallow geothermal cold Total energy applications 2022* 1,265 72
Shallow geothermal cold Electricity 2022*
Shallow geothermal cold Heat 2022* 1,265 72
Shallow geothermal cold Transport 2022*
Aerothermal heat, total Total energy applications 2022* 4,669 122
Aerothermal heat, total Electricity 2022*
Aerothermal heat, total Heat 2022* 4,669 122
Aerothermal heat, total Transport 2022*
Total biomass Total energy applications 2022* 131,076 9,895
Total biomass Electricity 2022* 60,648 5,201
Total biomass Heat 2022* 44,968 2,716
Total biomass Transport 2022* 25,460 1,978
Municipal waste; renewable fraction Total energy applications 2022* 23,522 1,426
Municipal waste; renewable fraction Electricity 2022* 14,040 891
Municipal waste; renewable fraction Heat 2022* 9,481 535
Municipal waste; renewable fraction Transport 2022*
Co-firing of biomass in electr. plants Total energy applications 2022* 46,029 4,359
Co-firing of biomass in electr. plants Electricity 2022* 43,278 4,098
Co-firing of biomass in electr. plants Heat 2022* 2,752 261
Co-firing of biomass in electr. plants Transport 2022*
Total biomass households Total energy applications 2022* 11,507 649
Total biomass households Electricity 2022*
Total biomass households Heat 2022* 11,507 649
Total biomass households Transport 2022*
Biomass households, open fireplaces Total energy applications 2022* 187 11
Biomass households, open fireplaces Electricity 2022*
Biomass households, open fireplaces Heat 2022* 187 11
Biomass households, open fireplaces Transport 2022*
Biomass households, inserts Total energy applications 2022* 1,644 93
Biomass households, inserts Electricity 2022*
Biomass households, inserts Heat 2022* 1,644 93
Biomass households, inserts Transport 2022*
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Dataset is not available.


The use of renewable energy avoids the use of fossil energy and as a consequence avoids emission of CO2. Renewable energy is energy from wind, hydro power, the sun, the earth, heat from outdoor air and biomass. This is energy from natural processes that is replenished constantly.

Figures are presented in an absolute way, as well as related to the total emission of carbon dioxide in the Netherlands.

Avoiding the use of fossil energy and avoiding emission of carbon dioxide are important underlying aims for stimulation of the use of renewable energy.

The figures are broken down into energy source/technique and into application (electricity, heat and transport).

Data available from:
1990

Status of the figures:
This table contains definite figures up to and including 2020, revised provisional figures for 2021 and provisional figures for 2023.

Changes as of June 30th 2023
Provisional figures added for 2022, revised provisional figures adjusted for 2021.
From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass will apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2018). Only solid and gaseous biomass compliant according to these criteria are used to determine the avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2 in 2021.
An exception applies to the biogas used for bio-methane production. The current methodology doesn’t discern sustainable from non-sustainable biogas used for bio-methane production. This differs from the methodology used for gross final energy consumption that is the basis of most statistics on renewable energy.

Changes as of February 8th 2023
Revised provisional figures added for 2021.
Figures for 2020 are definite.
From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass will apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2018). Only solid and gaseous biomass compliant according to these criteria are used to determine the avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2 in 2021.
Figures for 2020 and before were calculated based on RED I; in accordance with Eurostat these figures will not be modified anymore. This may result in inconsistencies with other tables.

Changes as of July 2022:
Revised provisional figures added for 2021.
From reporting year 2021, new sustainability criteria for solid and gaseous biomass will apply in the context of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (2018). It is currently unclear whether all biomass consumed in the Netherlands meets these new sustainability criteria. This has an impact on the calculation of the avoided use of fossil energy and emission of CO2. For the cases where this uncertainty applies a “.“ is displayed.


When will new figures be published?
Provisional figures: June of the following year.
Revised provisional figures: December of the following year.
Definite figures: December of the second following year.

Description topics

Avoided use of fossil energy
The avoided use of fossil primary energy is the amount of fossil (and nuclear) energy that would have been used if renewable energy was not used.
The avoided use of fossil primary energy is the sum of:
1. The avoided use of fossil primary energy by the domestic production of electricity, heat and gas from renewable sources.
2. The avoided use of fossil energy by the biofuels for road transport sold on the domestic market.
Imports and exports of green electricity is not included.
Avoided energy
In this table, the unit TeraJoule (TJ) is used. This equals 1,000,000,000,000 joules (10 to the power of 12). A joule is a unit of energy equivalent to 0.24 calories. A TJ is equivalent to 31 600 cubic meters of natural gas or 278 000 kilowatt-hours of electricity.
Avoided carbon dioxide emission (CO2)
The amount of carbon dioxide that is emitted if no use is made of renewable energy technology. The amount of carbon dioxide is calculated in accordance with the methodology of the Protocol Monitoring Renewable Energy (AgentschapNL, 2010). It covers domestic production of renewable electricity, heat and gas. Imports of green electricity is not included.
This methodology only considers the avoided emission by the use of the renewable energy at the final stage: production of renewable electricity, heat and gas. The earlier stages are not included. For biofuels for road transport greenhouse gas emissions of the earlier stages may be substantial. Therefore, for these biofuels no avoided CO2 emissions are published.
Avoided emission
1 kton = 1,000 ton = 1 million kg.