Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Periods GDP from the output Value at current prices Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (million euros) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (%) GDP from the output Price indices Gross value added basic prices O-Q Government and care (2015 =100) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation General government (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at prices of 2015 National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at prices of 2015 National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation General government (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation General government (%) GDP from the final expenditure Price indices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (2015 =100) GDP from the final expenditure Price indices National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation General government (2015 =100)
2021* 167,484 142,377 4.6 117.6 225,204 29,493 197,014 26,746 5.2 -2.0 114.3 110.3
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table presents annual data on the output components, the final expenditure categories and the income components of gross domestic product of the Netherlands. In the national accounts gross domestic product is approached from three points of view: from the output, from the generation of income and from the final expenditure. Gross domestic product is a main macroeconomic indicator. The volume change of gross domestic product is a measure for the economic growth of a country.

Data available from: 1995.

Status of the figures:
Data from 1995 up to and including 2020 are final. Data of 2021 are provisional.

Changes as of June 24th 2022:
Data of 2021 have been added to this table.

When will new figures be published?
Provisional data are published 6 months after the end of the reporting year. Final data are released 18 months after the end of the reporting year.

Description topics

GDP from the output
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called production approach. In this approach GDP equals the sum of value added over all branches (including non-commercial ones). Value added is thereby registered at basic prices. GDP at market prices is obtained by adding taxes less subsidies on production and the difference between imputed and paid VAT. The included taxes and subsidies apply both to produced and imported goods and services. Examples of these are VAT and taxes on import.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
Volume changes on previous year
Volume changes on previous year
The weighted average of the changes in the quantity and quality of the components of a certain goods or service transaction or balancing item, annual percentage changes.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
Price indices
The weighted average of the price changes of the components of a certain variable. Deflators relative to the reference year 2015.
Gross value added basic prices
The value of all goods and services produced (production value or output), minus those that have been intermediately used upon production (intermediate consumption). Value added is rated at basic prices: purchaser's prices minus trade and transport margins and taxes on products paid and plus subsidies on products received. Intermediate consumption is rated at purchaser's prices minus deductible VAT.
Included is the output by all kind-of-activity units residing in the Netherlands, also those that are held by foreign owners.
Net value added can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from gross value added.
O-Q Government and care
Government and care
This category is made up of the categories:
O Public administration, public services and compulsory social security
P Education
Q Health and social work activities
GDP from the final expenditure
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called expenditure approach. In this approach the components are consumption by households, consumption by the general government, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports, minus imports. Consumption, fixed capital formation and changes in inventories add up to the so-called national final expenditure. By adding exports final expenditure is obtained. Intermediate consumption, goods and services used upon production, is not part of final expenditure.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on produced assets that are used in a production process for more than one year. This may concern a building, dwelling, transport equipment or a machine. This in contrast with goods and services which are used up during the production process, the so-called intermediate use (e.g. iron ore). Fixed capital does lose value over time as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence. This is called consumption of fixed capital (also called depreciation). The value of fixed capital formation in which the consumption of fixed capital is not deducted is called gross fixed capital formation. Deduction of the consumption of fixed capital results in net fixed capital formation.

The following types of fixed assets exist: dwellings and other buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, weapon systems (included in machinery and equipment), computers, software, telecommunication equipment, research and development, cultivated biological resources, mineral exploration and evaluation, and costs of ownership transfer on non-produced assets, like land, contracts, leases and licences.
General government
Gross fixed capital formation of the sector general government. Fixed capital formation by the general government concerns e.g. investments in public infrastructure, research and development and weapon systems.
Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on produced assets that are used in a production process for more than one year. This may concern a building, dwelling, transport equipment or a machine. This in contrast with goods and services which are used up during the production process, the so-called intermediate use (e.g. iron ore). Fixed capital does lose value over time as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence. This is called consumption of fixed capital (also called depreciation). The value of fixed capital formation in which the consumption of fixed capital is not deducted is called gross fixed capital formation. Deduction of the consumption of fixed capital results in net fixed capital formation.

The following types of fixed assets exist: dwellings and other buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, weapon systems (included in machinery and equipment), computers, software, telecommunication equipment, research and development, cultivated biological resources, mineral exploration and evaluation, and costs of ownership transfer on non-produced assets, like land, contracts, leases and licences.

General government
Gross fixed capital formation of the sector general government. Fixed capital formation by the general government concerns e.g. investments in public infrastructure, research and development and weapon systems.
Volume changes on previous year
The weighted average of the changes in the quantity and quality of the components of a certain goods or service transaction or balancing item, annual percentage changes.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on produced assets that are used in a production process for more than one year. This may concern a building, dwelling, transport equipment or a machine. This in contrast with goods and services which are used up during the production process, the so-called intermediate use (e.g. iron ore). Fixed capital does lose value over time as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence. This is called consumption of fixed capital (also called depreciation). The value of fixed capital formation in which the consumption of fixed capital is not deducted is called gross fixed capital formation. Deduction of the consumption of fixed capital results in net fixed capital formation.

The following types of fixed assets exist: dwellings and other buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, weapon systems (included in machinery and equipment), computers, software, telecommunication equipment, research and development, cultivated biological resources, mineral exploration and evaluation, and costs of ownership transfer on non-produced assets, like land, contracts, leases and licences.
General government
Gross fixed capital formation of the sector general government. Fixed capital formation by the general government concerns e.g. investments in public infrastructure, research and development and weapon systems.
Price indices
The weighted average of the price changes of the components of a certain variable. Deflators relative to the reference year 2015.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on produced assets that are used in a production process for more than one year. This may concern a building, dwelling, transport equipment or a machine. This in contrast with goods and services which are used up during the production process, the so-called intermediate use (e.g. iron ore). Fixed capital does lose value over time as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence. This is called consumption of fixed capital (also called depreciation). The value of fixed capital formation in which the consumption of fixed capital is not deducted is called gross fixed capital formation. Deduction of the consumption of fixed capital results in net fixed capital formation.

The following types of fixed assets exist: dwellings and other buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, weapon systems (included in machinery and equipment), computers, software, telecommunication equipment, research and development, cultivated biological resources, mineral exploration and evaluation, and costs of ownership transfer on non-produced assets, like land, contracts, leases and licences.
General government
Gross fixed capital formation of the sector general government. Fixed capital formation by the general government concerns e.g. investments in public infrastructure, research and development and weapon systems.