Energy balance sheet; supply, transformation and consumption

Energy balance sheet; supply, transformation and consumption

Energy commodities Periods Energy supply Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) (PJ) Energy supply Indigenous production (PJ) Energy supply Imports (PJ) Energy supply Exports (PJ) Energy supply Net imports (PJ) Energy supply Bunkers (PJ) Energy supply Stock change (PJ) Statistical differences (PJ) Total energy consumption (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Total energy transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Electricity and CHP transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Other transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Total energy transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Electricity/CHP transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Other transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Total net energy transformation (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Net electricity/CHP transformation (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Net other transformation (PJ) Energy sector own use Total (PJ) Energy sector own use Extraction of crude petroleum and gas (PJ) Energy sector own use Coke-oven plants (PJ) Energy sector own use Oil refineries (PJ) Energy sector own use Total energy companies (PJ) Distribution losses (PJ) Final consumption Total final consumption (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Iron and steel (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Chemical and petrochemical (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Non-ferrous metals (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Non-metallic minerals (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Transport equipment (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Machinery (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Mining and quarrying (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Food and tobacco (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Paper, pulp and printing (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Wood and wood products (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Construction (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Textile and leather (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Other industry and non-specified (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Domestic aviation (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Road transport (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Rail transport (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Pipeline transport (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Domestic navigation (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Non-specified (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Services, waste, water and repair (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Dwellings (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Agriculture (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Fishing (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Non-specified (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Total (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Industry (excluding the energy sector) (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Of which chemistry and pharmaceuticals (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Transport (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Other sectors (PJ)
Total coal and coal products 2016 427.3 430.7 5.3 425.4 1.9 427.3 510.4 330.8 179.7 112.2 112.2 398.2 330.8 67.5 7.8 7.8 . 21.2 20.9 20.8 17.5 . . 1.5 . 0.2 0.9 0.1 . 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 .
Total crude and petroleum products 2016 1,174.5 85.6 8,366.2 6,665.5 1,700.7 660.2 48.3 -7.6 1,182.1 3,627.9 16.2 3,611.7 3,569.1 3,569.1 58.8 16.2 42.6 92.7 0.0 92.7 . 1,030.6 598.1 136.0 0.2 116.7 0.0 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 17.4 0.0 0.1 426.4 0.4 411.6 1.2 13.2 35.6 6.8 1.5 16.9 7.6 2.9 432.5 428.4 418.9 2.6 1.5
Natural gas 2016 1,257.2 1,594.3 1,384.1 1,796.5 -412.4 0.0 75.3 -8.3 1,265.5 474.2 455.7 18.5 4.1 4.1 470.1 455.7 14.4 39.7 24.2 14.2 1.4 755.7 659.5 180.5 9.7 70.4 2.8 18.2 2.1 10.7 1.9 45.3 6.5 1.0 4.1 2.5 5.3 1.8 1.8 477.2 129.7 297.2 50.1 0.1 96.2 96.2 96.2
Renewable energy 2016 162.3 201.4 20.9 59.3 -38.4 -0.7 -0.1 162.4 126.2 110.0 16.2 126.2 110.0 16.2 . . . . . 36.2 36.2 4.8 . 0.3 . 0.6 . . . 1.0 1.5 1.1 0.1 . 0.2 . . . . . . . 31.4 5.9 19.5 5.9 . .
Electricity 2016 17.7 87.3 69.6 17.7 -2.6 20.3 15.0 15.0 . 414.8 414.8 -399.7 -399.7 . 21.5 9.6 0.3 8.6 3.1 19.6 378.9 378.9 128.4 9.4 46.3 8.0 4.7 2.2 10.8 0.9 24.7 9.0 0.7 3.3 1.3 7.2 7.1 1.2 5.8 243.5 129.6 81.3 32.2 0.4
Heat 2016 14.5 14.5 0.0 198.6 180.3 18.3 -184.0 -165.8 -18.3 15.7 0.3 13.6 1.9 3.8 164.6 164.6 98.3 2.5 70.0 1.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 1.8 14.7 7.3 0.3 . 0.2 0.0 66.3 11.3 12.3 42.7 0.0
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table shows the supply, transformation and the consumption of energy in a balance sheet. Energy is released - among other things - during the combustion of for example natural gas, petroleum, hard coal and biofuels. Energy can also be obtained from electricity or heat, or extracted from natural resources, e.g. wind or solar energy. In energy statistics all these sources of energy are known as energy commodities.

The supply side of the balance sheet includes indigenous production of energy, net imports and exports and net stock changes. This is mentioned primary energy supply, because this is the amount of energy available for transformation or consumption in the country.

For energy transformation, the table gives figures on the transformation input (amount of energy used to make other energy commodities), the transformation output (amount of energy made from other energy commodities) and net energy transformation. The latter is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.

Then the energy balance sheet shows the final consumption of energy. First, it refers to the own use of the energy sector and distribution losses. After deduction of these amounts remains the final consumption of energy customers. This comprises the final energy consumption and non-energy use. The final energy consumption is the energy consumers utilize for energy purposes. It is specified for successively industry, transport and other customers, broken down into various sub-sectors. The last form of energy is the non-energy use. This is the use of an energy commodity for a product that is not energy.

Data available:
From 1946.

Status of the figures:
All figures up to and including 2017 are definite. Figures of 2018 and 2019 are revised provisional.

Changes as of 16 July 2020:
Figures of 2019 have been adjusted.

Changes as of 18 June 2020:
Revised provisional figures of 2019 have been added.

Changes as of 13 December 2019:
In December 2019 the Energy balance has been revised and corrected, concerning the following items:

The Energy balance from 1990 onwards has been revised. The revision of final energy consumption in the residential sector concerns the consumption of biomass in households, which is about 2 PJ lower in 2014-2016. For older yeaers the adaptations are less than 1 PJ. Thes adaptations also affect primary production, total energy consumption and higher aggregates that contain biomassa and the residential sector.

Reason for the revision is the new calibration of the model of TNO that delivers the data for biomassa in households. The calibration of the model has been renewed, because new survey results (WoON) on biomass consumption by houesholds has become available. Furthermore, for 2015 and 2016 an error in the data for final electricity consumption in the chemical industry has been repaired. Consequently, this consumption is now about 2 PJ less. Also this adaptation affects higher aggregates.

Definite figures of 2017 and revised provisional figures of 2018 have been added.

Changes as of 10 September 2019:
Symbol of Wind energy on shore for period 1990 up to and including 2005 have been changed, a '.' is replaced with an 'empty cell' which means in this table nill. Symbol of natural gas for period 1948 up to and including 1951 have been changed, an 'empty cell' is replaced with a '.'.

When will new figures be published?
Provisionalfigures: April of the following year.
Revised provisional figures: June/July of the following year.
Definite figures: December of the second following year.

Description topics

Energy supply
The amount of energy primarily available for consumption in the Netherlands.
Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES)
The amount of energy primarily available for consumption in the Netherlands (imports plus indigenous production and withdrawal from stocks) minus the amount which is not available for consumption (exports and bunkers).
Indigenous production
Extraction of energy commodities from nature.

Fossil energy commodities - coal, oil and natural gas - are extracted from the earth. Renewable commodities include wind energy and biomass. Other commodities include, for example, nuclear energy and energy from waste.
Imports
Imports of energy commodities.
Exports
Exports of energy commodities.
Net imports
Imports minus exports.
Bunkers
Delivery of fuels for international shipping and aviation, i.e. ships and aircraft departing from Dutch (air)ports and arriving in foreign (air)ports. In the energy balance sheet bunkers are considered as a form of export and are not included in energy available for consumption in the Netherlands.
Bunkers by sector are not known.
Stock change
Changes in stock are calculated as opening stock minus closing stock, in accordance with international energy statistics guidelines. A positive figure means that stocks have decreased, and the supply of energy has thus increased. A negative figure means the opposite: an increase in stocks and a decrease in consumption.
Statistical differences
The difference between the energy sypply and energy consumption of an energy commodity.

This difference arises because the figures on supply and consumption come from different sources
For many energy commodities, the difference is allocated to supply or consumption. Then this statistical difference is nil.
Total energy consumption
The amount of energy used by companies, households and transport in the Netherlands. Energy can be used
- for transformation into other energy commodities, this is input minus the energy produced.
- as final consumption.

Total energy consumption =

Total net energy transformation + total own use energy sector + distribution losses + total final consumption
Energy transformation
Transformation of one energy commodity into another. This may be a transformation from a fuel into heat or power. It may also be a physical processing of one fuel into another, like the transformation of crude oil into motor gasoline.
Energy transformation input
Total energy transformation input
The amount of energy used to produce other energy commodities. This may be a transformation from a fuel into heat or power. It may also be a physical processing of one fuel into another, like the transformation of crude oil into motor gasoline.

Total energy transformation input is the sum of:
- Electricity and CHP transformation input
- Other transformation input.
Electricity and CHP transformation input
The amount of energy used for the production of
- electricity only,
- electricity and useful heat, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat is in the form of steam or warm water.
Other transformation input
The amount of energy used for the production of:
- fuel from another fuel, e.g. use of crude oil as feedstock for the production of petroleum products, like motor gasoline.
- heat only, i.e. at companies supplying heat to another company. Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Energy transformation output
Total energy transformation output
The amount of energy transformed from another energy commodity. This may be heat or power made from another fuel. It may also be the production of a fuel by a physical processing of another fuel, e.g. production of motor gasoline from crude oil.

Total energy transformation output is the sum of:
- Electricity/CHP transformation output
- Other transformation output
Electricity/CHP transformation output
The production of heat and power through electricity and CHP transformation.
Includes production of:
- electricity only
- electricity and useful heat combined, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Other transformation output
The production of energy from other transformations.
Includes:
- coal and oil products made from other fuels, e.g. production of petroleum products like motor gasoline from crude oil.
- heat of companies supplying heat to another company. Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Excludes heat from CHP.
Net energy transformation
Total net energy transformation
The difference between transformation input and transformation output.

Total net energy transformation is the sum of:
- Net electricity/CHP transformation
- Net other transformation.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Net electricity/CHP transformation
Input minus output of energy transformation into:
- electricity only,
- electricity and useful heat, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat has the form of steam or warm water.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Net other transformation
Input minus output of energy transformation into:
- another fuel, e.g. production of coal and petroleum products.
- heat only, i.e. at companies supplying heat to another company. Excludes use for CHP transformation.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or motor gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Energy sector own use
Own use of the energy sector in the Netherlands.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas
- Coke-oven plants
- Oil refineries
- Total energy companies
Extraction of crude petroleum and gas
This category is made up of:
- extraction of crude petroleum
- extraction of natural gas
- support activities for petroleum and natural gas extraction
Coke-oven plants
Manufacture of coke oven products, like cokes and coke-oven gas.
Oil refineries
Manufacture of refined petroleum products
Total energy companies
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply.
Distribution losses
Distribution losses of electricity and heat.

For electricity includes losses in energy distribution, transmission and transport.
Final consumption
Total final consumption
Total final consumption is the sum of:
- Final energy consumption
- Non-energy use
Final energy consumption
Final consumption of energy. No useful energy commodity remains.

Examples are the combustion of natural gas in boilers, household electricity consumption and the consumption of motor fuels for transport.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Industry (excluding the energy sector)
- Transport
- Other sectors
Industry (excluding the energy sector)
Companies in the sector industry (excluding the energy sector) in the Netherlands.
The sector industry is companies in mining and quarrying, manufacturing and construction.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Iron and steel
- Chemical and petrochemical
- Non-ferrous metals
- Non-metallic minerals
- Transport equipment
- Machinery
- Mining and quarrying
- Food and tobacco
- Paper, pulp and printing
- Wood and wood products
- Construction
- Textile and leather
- Non-specified
Iron and steel
This category is made up of the categories:
241 Manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferro-alloys
242 Manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings of steel
243 Other first processing of steal
2451 Casting of iron
2452 Casting of steel
Chemical and petrochemical
Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals
This category is made up of the categories:
20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Non-ferrous metals
This category is made up of the categories:
244 Manufacture of basic precious and other non-ferrous metals
2453 Casting of light metals
2454 Casting of other non-ferrous metals
Non-metallic minerals
Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products.
Transport equipment
Manufacture of transport equipment
This category is made up of the categories:
29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
30 Manufacture of other transport equipment
Machinery
This category is made up of the categories:
25 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
26 Manufacture of computers, electronic and optical products
27 Manufacture of electrical equipment
28 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
Mining and quarrying
Includes 099 support activities for other mining and quarrying.
Food and tobacco
Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco
This category is made up of the categories:
10 Manufacture of food products
11 Manufacture of beverages
12 Manufacture of tobacco products
Paper, pulp and printing
Manufacture of paper and paper products; printing and reproduction
This category is made up of the categories:
17 Manufacture of paper and paper products
18 Printing and reproduction of recorded media
Wood and wood products
Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials
Construction
Including mobile equipment on own premises. Excludes transport on public road.
Textile and leather
Manufacture of textiles and textile products and of leather and leather products
This category is made up of the categories:
13 Manufacture of textile
14 Manufacture of wearing apparel
15 Manufacture of leather, products of leather and footwear
Other industry and non-specified
Industry (excluding the energy sector) non-specified.
Transport
All passenger and freight transport by rail, road, water and air.

Excludes transport on own premises, fishing, agriculture and mobile equipment.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Domestic aviation
- Road transport
- Rail transport
- Pipeline transport
- Domestic navigation
- Non-specified
Domestic aviation
All domestic passenger and freight air transport departing from and arriving on Dutch airports.
Road transport
All passenger and freight transport on public roads by car, auto bus, goods vehicle, motorcycle, moped, etc.

Excludes transport on own premises and consumption of mobile equipment, such as tractors and mobile machinery for agriculture/construction (which typically do not operate on public roads).
Rail transport
All passenger and freight transport by rail, like train, tram and metro. Excludes transport on own premises.

Trolley buses are included in road transport.
Pipeline transport
All freight transport by pipeline.
Domestic navigation
All domestic passenger and freight water transport, inland waterway, maritime and coastal shipping departing from and arriving in Dutch ports. Includes work on sea, like dredging, construction and maintenance of offshore rigs and off shore wind turbines.

Does not include fishing.
Non-specified
Transport non-specified.
Other sectors
Services, households, agriculture, fishing and non-specified.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Services, waste, water and repair
- Dwellings
- Agriculture
- Fishing
- Non-specified
Services, waste, water and repair
Commercial and non-commercial services. Includes water supply, waste management and repair.
Dwellings
A collection of one or more people sharing the same living space, who provide their own everyday needs in a private, non-commercial way.
Excludes transport.
Agriculture
Agriculture. Includes agricultural services.
Fishing
Fuel bought in the Netherlands by Dutch and foreign fishermen.
Non-specified
Other sectors non-specified.
Non-energy use
Use of an energy commodity for a product that is not energy. The energy used for the production process remains in the product. E.g. use of oil for the production of plastics, or natural gas for fertilisers.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Industry (excluding the energy sector)
- Transport
- Other sectors
Industry (excluding the energy sector)
Companies in the sector industry (excluding the energy sector) in the Netherlands.
The sector industry is companies in mining and quarrying, manufacturing and construction.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Of which chemistry and pharmaceuticals
Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals

This category is made up of the categories:
20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Transport
All passenger and freight transport by rail, road, water and air.

Excludes transport on own premises, fishing, agriculture and mobile equipment.
Other sectors
Final non-energy consumption of services, households, agriculture, fishing and other.

Excludes transport outside own premises.

Natural gas, non-energy use

To cope with differences in demand for natural gas in summer and winter there is a need for storage of natural gas.

An empty gas field could be adapted to be used as underground storage for natural gas (UGS). For this purpose a certain pressure is needed to facilitate quick extraction of stored natural gas.

The natural gas that has been injected in the empty field to raise the pressure is called cushion gas. This cushion gas is not part of natural gas as stocks, because it stays in the storage during the entire life time of the UGS.

The amount of natural gas injected in the field to be used as cushion gas is reflected in the energy balance sheet as part of non-energy use of natural gas.