Energy balance sheet; supply, transformation and consumption

Energy balance sheet; supply, transformation and consumption

Energy commodities Periods Energy supply Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) (PJ) Energy supply Indigenous production (PJ) Energy supply Imports (PJ) Energy supply Exports (PJ) Energy supply Net imports (PJ) Energy supply Bunkers (PJ) Energy supply Stock change (PJ) Statistical differences (PJ) Total energy consumption (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Total energy transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Electricity and CHP transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Other transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Total energy transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Electricity/CHP transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Other transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Total net energy transformation (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Net electricity/CHP transformation (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Net other transformation (PJ) Own use Total (PJ) Own use Production of heat and power (PJ) Own use Extraction of crude petroleum and gas (PJ) Own use Coke-oven plants (PJ) Own use Blast furnaces (PJ) Own use Oil refinery installations (PJ) Own use Other installations (PJ) Distribution losses (PJ) Final consumption Total final consumption (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Iron and steel (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Chemical and petrochemical (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Non-ferrous metals (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Non-metallic minerals (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Transport equipment (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Machinery (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Mining and quarrying (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Food and tobacco (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Paper, pulp and printing (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Wood and wood products (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Construction (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Textile and leather (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Other industry and non-specified (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Domestic aviation (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Road transport (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Rail transport (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Pipeline transport (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Domestic navigation (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Transport Non-specified (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Services, waste, water and repair (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Dwellings (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Agriculture (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Fishing (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Other sectors Non-specified (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Total (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Industry (excluding the energy sector) (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Of which chemical and petrochemical (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Transport (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Other sectors (PJ)
Total coal and coal products 2016 430.2 430.0 1.7 428.3 1.9 430.2 504.2 330.8 173.4 112.2 112.2 392.0 330.8 61.2 17.7 7.8 9.8 20.5 17.3 17.1 13.9 1.5 0.2 0.8 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.0 3.2 3.2
Total crude and petroleum products 2016 1,171.1 82.2 8,366.2 6,665.5 1,700.7 660.2 48.3 -7.3 1,178.4 3,621.8 16.1 3,605.7 3,569.5 3,569.5 52.3 16.1 36.3 93.5 0.0 93.5 1,032.5 598.4 136.3 0.0 117.2 0.0 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 17.4 0.0 0.1 426.6 0.4 411.7 1.2 13.2 35.6 6.7 1.5 16.9 7.6 2.9 434.1 429.9 408.0 2.6 1.5
Natural gas 2016 1,257.2 1,594.3 1,377.1 1,789.5 -412.4 0.0 75.3 -4.4 1,261.6 475.1 453.6 21.5 4.1 4.1 471.0 453.6 17.4 41.3 24.7 0.6 14.6 1.4 749.3 653.8 175.3 9.0 70.0 2.8 18.2 2.1 11.1 1.9 40.2 7.2 1.0 4.1 2.5 5.3 2.5 2.5 475.9 128.4 297.2 50.1 0.1 95.5 95.5 95.5
Renewable energy 2016 162.3 201.4 20.9 59.3 -38.4 -0.7 -0.2 162.5 126.2 110.0 16.2 126.2 110.0 16.2 36.3 36.3 5.0 0.3 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.1 0.1 0.2 31.4 5.9 19.5 5.9
Electricity 2016 17.7 87.3 69.6 17.7 -2.0 19.7 414.6 414.6 -414.6 -414.6 36.4 15.0 9.4 0.3 0.4 8.6 2.6 19.6 378.3 378.3 127.5 8.9 47.2 8.0 4.7 2.2 10.8 0.9 24.0 8.5 0.7 3.3 1.2 7.2 6.6 0.8 5.8 244.1 130.3 81.3 32.2 0.4
Heat 2016 14.5 14.5 204.4 179.1 25.4 -189.9 -164.5 -25.4 15.5 1.1 13.7 0.7 8.7 165.8 165.8 100.9 2.2 72.5 1.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 1.8 14.3 8.2 0.3 0.2 0.0 64.9 9.9 12.3 42.7 0.0
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table shows the supply, transformation and the consumption of energy in a balance sheet. Energy is released - among other things - during the combustion of for example natural gas, petroleum, hard coal and biofuels. Energy can also be obtained from electricity or heat, or extracted from natural resources, e.g. wind or solar energy. In energy statistics all these sources of energy are known as energy commodities.

The supply side of the balance sheet includes indigenous production of energy, net imports and exports and net stock changes. This is mentioned primary energy supply, because this is the amount of energy available for transformation or consumption in the country.

For energy transformation, the table gives figures on the transformation input (amount of energy used to make other energy commodities), the transformation output (amount of energy made from other energy commodities) and net energy transformation. The latter is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.

Then the energy balance sheet shows the final consumption of energy. First, it refers to the own use and distribution losses. After deduction of these amounts remains the final consumption of energy customers. This comprises the final energy consumption and non-energy use. The final energy consumption is the energy consumers utilize for energy purposes. It is specified for successively industry, transport and other customers, broken down into various sub-sectors. The last form of energy is the non-energy use. This is the use of an energy commodity for a product that is not energy.

Data available:
From 1946.

Status of the figures:
All figures up to and including 2019 are definite. Figures of 2020 are revised provisional. Figures of 2021 are provisional.

Changes as of 7th of April 2022:
Provisional figures of 2021 have been added.

Changes as of 1 March 2022:
Figures for 1990 up to and including 2020 have been revised. The most important change is a different way of presenting own use of electricity of power-generating installations. Previously, this was regarded as electricity and CHP transformation input. From now on, this is seen as own use, as is customary in international energy statistics. As a result, the input and net energy transformation decrease and own use increases, on average about 15 PJ per year. Own use of power production installations is now visible in the new topic 'Own use of electricity and heat production'.
In the previous revision of 2021, the new sector blast furnaces was introduced for the years 2015 up to and including 2020, which describes the transformation of coke oven coke and coking coal into blast furnace gas that takes place in the production of pig iron from iron ore. This activity was previously part of the steel industry. With this revision, the change has been put back to 1990.

Changes as of 16th December 2021:
Figures for 2015 up to and including 2018 have been revised and the structure of table has been adapted. Major items are the following:
Blast furnaces have been introduced from 2015 onwards as separate sector and are not any more part of the iron and steel industry. Consequently, own use of the energy sector has increased about 10 PJ and final energy consumption has decreased about 10 PJ. This concerns the energy products cokes oven gas, blast furnace gas, natural gas and electricity. An other item is the shift of transformation output of other oil products in the chemical industry outside the petrochemical industry to indigenous production (0.4 to 4 PJ each year). Both items are intended to more completely fulfill the international methodological standards on energy statistics. Additionally, for 2015 up to and including 2018 a few other improved insights in the energy balance of individual companies have been incorporated.

When will new figures be published?
Provisional figures: April of the following year.
Revised provisional figures: June/July of the following year.
Definite figures: December of the second following year.

Description topics

Energy supply
The amount of energy primarily available for consumption in the Netherlands.
Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES)
The amount of energy primarily available for consumption in the Netherlands (imports plus indigenous production and withdrawal from stocks) minus the amount which is not available for consumption (exports and bunkers).
Indigenous production
Extraction of energy commodities from nature.

Fossil energy commodities - hard coal, oil and natural gas - are extracted from the earth. Renewable commodities include wind energy and biomass. Other commodities include, for example, nuclear energy and energy from waste.
Imports
Imports of energy commodities.
Exports
Exports of energy commodities.
Net imports
Imports of energy commodities minus exports of energy commodities.
Bunkers
Delivery of fuels for international shipping and aviation, i.e. ships and aircraft departing from Dutch (air)ports and arriving in foreign (air)ports. In the energy balance sheet bunkers are considered as a form of export and are not included in energy available for consumption in the Netherlands. Bunkers by sector are not known.
Stock change
Changes in stock are calculated as opening stock minus closing stock, in accordance with international energy statistics guidelines. A positive figure means that stocks have decreased, and the supply of energy has thus increased. A negative figure means the opposite: an increase in stocks and a decrease in consumption.
Statistical differences
The difference between the energy supply and energy consumption of an energy commodity.

This difference arises because the figures on supply and consumption come from different sources. For many energy commodities, the difference is allocated to supply or consumption. Then this statistical difference is nil.
Total energy consumption
The amount of energy used by companies, households and transport in the Netherlands. Energy can be used
- for transformation into other energy commodities, this is input minus the energy produced.
- as final consumption.

Total energy consumption =
Total net energy transformation + total own use + distribution losses + total final consumption.
Energy transformation
Transformation of one energy commodity into another. This may be a transformation from a fuel into heat or power. It may also be a physical processing of one fuel into another, like the transformation of crude oil into motor gasoline.
Energy transformation input
Total energy transformation input
The amount of energy used to produce other energy commodities. This may be a transformation from a fuel into heat or power. It may also be a physical processing of one fuel into another, like the transformation of crude oil into motor gasoline.

Total energy transformation input is the sum of:
- Electricity and CHP transformation input
- Other transformation input.
Electricity and CHP transformation input
The amount of energy used for the production of:
- electricity only,
- electricity and useful heat, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat is in the form of steam or warm water.
Other transformation input
The amount of energy used for the production of:
- fuel from another fuel, e.g. use of crude oil as feedstock for the production of petroleum products, like motor gasoline.
- heat only, i.e. at companies supplying heat to another company. Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Energy transformation output
Total energy transformation output
The amount of energy transformed from another energy commodity. This may be heat or power made from another fuel. It may also be the production of a fuel by a physical processing of another fuel, e.g. production of motor gasoline from crude oil.

Total energy transformation output is the sum of:
- Electricity/CHP transformation output
- Other transformation output
Electricity/CHP transformation output
The production of heat and power through electricity and CHP transformation.
Includes production of:
- electricity only
- electricity and useful heat combined, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Other transformation output
The production of energy from other transformations.
Includes:
- hard coal and oil products made from other fuels, e.g. production of petroleum products like motor gasoline from crude oil.
- heat of companies supplying heat to another company. Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Excludes heat from CHP.
Net energy transformation
Total net energy transformation
The difference between transformation input and transformation output.

Total net energy transformation is the sum of:
- Net electricity/CHP transformation
- Net other transformation.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and hard coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Net electricity/CHP transformation
Input minus output of energy transformation into:
- electricity only,
- electricity and useful heat, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat has the form of steam or warm water.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and hard coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Net other transformation
Input minus output of energy transformation into:
- another fuel, e.g. production of hard coal and petroleum products.
- heat only, i.e. at companies supplying heat to another company. Excludes use for CHP transformation.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and hard coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or motor gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Own use
The consumption of energy in installations for the production or transformation of energy and the consumption of energy by companies in the energy sector. This only concerns the necessary auxiliary energy, not the energy transformation input itself. The energy sector includes the extraction of crude petroleum and gas, coke-oven plants, blast furnaces, oil refinery installations and other installations / energy companies (sector D of the Standard Business Classification (SBI)). Examples of this own use are the combustion of fuels in oil refinery steam boilers to produce steam that brings the refining process to the desired temperature, the consumption of electricity for pumping natural gas from the ground, the consumption of electricity for transporting hard coal in a coal plant and the consumption of electricity by a waste incinerator for flue gas cleaning.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Production of heat and power
- Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas
- Coke-oven plants
- Blast furnaces
- Oil refinery installations
- Other installations
Production of heat and power
Installations for production of heat and power. Own use is the difference between the net and gross production of electricity. This concerns the own use of installations owned by companies in the energy sector and also by final users companies such as industries, waste processors or greenhouse companies with their own combined heat and power installation. In the other StatLine table on the Energy balance (Energy balance sheet by sector), the own use of production of heat and power is not separately visible, but it is part of the own use per subsector of both companies in the energy sector and final users companies.
Extraction of crude petroleum and gas
Installations for the extraction of crude petroleum, including natural gas liquids, and natural gas.
Own use concerns all activities to make the crude petroleum or gas suitable for transport in a pipeline. This includes, for example, energy for pumping up the mineral and removing and separating liquid hydrocarbon fractions.
Coke-oven plants
Coke ovens are large ovens within which coke oven coke, coke oven gas and coal tars are produced by high temperature carbonization of coking coal.
Blast furnaces
Blast furnaces are furnaces which produce blast furnace gas as a by-product when making pig iron from iron ore. During the process, carbon, mainly in the form of coke, is added to the blast furnace to support and reduce the iron oxide charge and provide heat. Blast furnace gas comprises carbon monoxide and other gases formed during the heating and reduction process.
Oil refinery installations
Own use of oil refineries excluding the installations that produce power.
Other installations
Own use at installations that do not belong to the above categories. This includes, for example, the heating of natural gas by Gasunie Transport Services (GTS) to make it easier to get through the pipelines and the consumption of electricity supplied by power plants (if they e.g. are shut down for maintenance or lack of demand).
Distribution losses
Distribution losses of electricity and heat.

For electricity includes losses in energy distribution, transmission and transport.
Final consumption
Total final consumption
Total final consumption is the sum of:
- Final energy consumption
- Non-energy use
Final energy consumption
Final consumption of energy. No useful energy commodity remains.

Examples are the combustion of natural gas in boilers, household electricity consumption and the consumption of motor fuels for transport.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Industry (excluding the energy sector)
- Transport
- Other sectors
Industry (excluding the energy sector)
Companies in the sector industry (excluding the energy sector) in the Netherlands.
The sector industry is companies in mining and quarrying, manufacturing and construction.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Iron and steel
- Chemical and petrochemical
- Non-ferrous metals
- Non-metallic minerals
- Transport equipment
- Machinery
- Mining and quarrying
- Food and tobacco
- Paper, pulp and printing
- Wood and wood products
- Construction
- Textile and leather
- Other industry and non-specified
Iron and steel
This category is made up of the categories:
241 Manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferro-alloys
242 Manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings of steel
243 Other first processing of steal
2451 Casting of iron
2452 Casting of steel
Chemical and petrochemical
Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals

This category is made up of the categories:
20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Non-ferrous metals
This category is made up of the categories:
244 Manufacture of basic precious and other non-ferrous metals
2453 Casting of light metals
2454 Casting of other non-ferrous metals
Non-metallic minerals
Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products.
Transport equipment
Manufacture of transport equipment
This category is made up of the categories:
29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
30 Manufacture of other transport equipment
Machinery
This category is made up of the categories:
25 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
26 Manufacture of computers, electronic and optical products
27 Manufacture of electrical equipment
28 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
Mining and quarrying
Includes 099 support activities for other mining and quarrying.
Food and tobacco
Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco

This category is made up of the categories:
10 Manufacture of food products
11 Manufacture of beverages
12 Manufacture of tobacco products
Paper, pulp and printing
Manufacture of paper and paper products; printing and reproduction

This category is made up of the categories:
17 Manufacture of paper and paper products
18 Printing and reproduction of recorded media
Wood and wood products
Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials
Construction
Including mobile equipment on own premises. Excludes transport on public road.
Textile and leather
Manufacture of textiles and textile products and of leather and leather products

This category is made up of the categories:
13 Manufacture of textile
14 Manufacture of wearing apparel
15 Manufacture of leather, products of leather and footwear
Other industry and non-specified
Other industry plus industry (excluding the energy sector) non-specified.
Transport
All passenger and freight transport by rail, road, water and air.

Excludes transport on own premises, fishing, agriculture and mobile equipment.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Domestic aviation
- Road transport
- Rail transport
- Pipeline transport
- Domestic navigation
- Non-specified
Domestic aviation
All domestic passenger and freight air transport departing from and arriving on Dutch airports.
Road transport
All passenger and freight transport on public roads by car, auto bus, goods vehicle, motorcycle, moped, etc.

Excludes transport on own premises and consumption of mobile equipment, such as tractors and mobile machinery for agriculture/construction (which typically do not operate on public roads).
Rail transport
All passenger and freight transport by rail, like train, tram and metro. Excludes transport on own premises.

Trolley buses are included in road transport.
Pipeline transport
All freight transport by pipeline.
Domestic navigation
All domestic passenger and freight water transport, inland waterway, maritime and coastal shipping departing from and arriving in Dutch ports. Includes work on sea, like dredging, construction and maintenance of offshore rigs and off shore wind turbines.

Does not include fishing.
Non-specified
Transport non-specified.
Other sectors
Services, households, agriculture, fishing and non-specified.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Services, waste, water and repair
- Dwellings
- Agriculture
- Fishing
- Non-specified
Services, waste, water and repair
Commercial and non-commercial services. Includes water supply, waste management and repair.
Dwellings
A collection of one or more people sharing the same living space, who provide their own everyday needs in a private, non-commercial way.
Excludes transport.
Agriculture
Agriculture. Includes agricultural services.
Fishing
Fuel bought in the Netherlands by Dutch and foreign fishermen.
Non-specified
Other sectors non-specified.
Non-energy use
Use of an energy commodity for a product that is not energy. The energy used for the production process remains in the product. E.g. use of oil for the production of plastics, or natural gas for fertilisers.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Industry (excluding the energy sector)
- Transport
- Other sectors
Industry (excluding the energy sector)
Companies in the sector industry (excluding the energy sector) in the Netherlands.
The sector industry is companies in mining and quarrying, manufacturing and construction.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Of which chemical and petrochemical
Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals

This category is made up of the categories:
20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Transport
All passenger and freight transport by rail, road, water and air.

Excludes transport on own premises, fishing, agriculture and mobile equipment.
Other sectors
Non-energy consumption of services, households, agriculture, fishing and other.

Excludes transport outside own premises.

Natural gas, non-energy use

To cope with differences in demand for natural gas in summer and winter there is a need for storage of natural gas.

An empty gas field could be adapted to be used as underground storage for natural gas (UGS). For this purpose a certain pressure is needed to facilitate quick extraction of stored natural gas.

The natural gas that has been injected in the empty field to raise the pressure is called cushion gas. This cushion gas is not part of natural gas as stocks, because it stays in the storage during the entire life time of the UGS.

The amount of natural gas injected in the field to be used as cushion gas is reflected in the energy balance sheet as part of non-energy use of natural gas.