Approaches of domestic product (GDP); NA, 1969-2016

Approaches of domestic product (GDP); NA, 1969-2016

Periods GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Total (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Total (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Households and NPISHs (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation Total (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation Corporations and households (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation General government (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Changes in inventories incl. valuables (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Exports of goods and services Total (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Exports of goods and services Exports of goods (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Exports of goods and services Exports of services (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Imports of goods and services (-) Total (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Imports of goods and services (-) Imports of goods (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Imports of goods and services (-) Imports of services (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices Gross domestic product (mln euro) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Total (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Total (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Households and NPISHs (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation Total (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation Corporations and households (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Gross fixed capital formation General government (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Changes in inventories incl. valuables (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year Exports of goods and services Total (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year Exports of goods and services Exports of goods (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year Exports of goods and services Exports of services (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year Imports of goods and services (-) Total (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year Imports of goods and services (-) Imports of goods (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year Imports of goods and services (-) Imports of services (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year Gross domestic product (%)
2009 572,284 442,934 279,579 163,355 131,554 104,976 26,578 -2,204 390,004 304,198 85,806 344,748 250,982 93,766 617,540 -2.5 0.2 -2.1 4.7 -9.2 -12.0 3.7 . -8.9 -10.0 -4.5 -7.7 -10.0 -0.4 -3.8
2010 578,699 449,742 282,510 167,232 124,649 98,442 26,207 4,308 454,398 360,296 94,102 401,585 300,067 101,518 631,512 -0.1 0.4 0.0 1.0 -6.5 -7.2 -3.8 . 10.5 11.5 7.3 9.3 10.5 6.1 1.4
2011 588,025 456,097 288,939 167,158 130,402 104,688 25,714 1,526 497,347 398,744 98,603 442,443 333,823 108,620 642,929 0.8 0.0 0.2 -0.2 5.6 7.8 -2.7 . 4.4 4.2 5.3 3.5 2.9 5.1 1.7
2012 583,218 459,631 289,756 169,875 121,928 97,770 24,158 1,659 528,623 425,408 103,215 466,677 354,312 112,365 645,164 -2.3 -1.2 -1.2 -1.3 -6.3 -6.2 -6.7 . 3.8 3.6 4.6 2.7 2.8 2.3 -1.1
2013 582,930 463,903 293,645 170,258 117,107 93,350 23,757 1,920 535,320 427,390 107,930 465,502 352,043 113,459 652,748 -1.4 -0.7 -1.0 -0.1 -4.3 -4.6 -3.0 . 2.1 1.8 3.3 1.0 1.3 0.1 -0.2
2014 591,123 468,668 296,682 171,986 119,530 96,232 23,298 2,925 547,415 429,655 117,760 475,530 353,737 121,793 663,008 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.3 3.4 -2.2 . 4.5 3.2 9.3 4.2 3.3 7.0 1.4
2015 611,322 475,147 303,470 171,677 132,464 107,954 24,510 3,711 570,178 440,240 129,938 498,043 361,853 136,190 683,457 3.3 1.2 2.0 -0.2 11.0 12.3 5.5 . 6.5 5.6 9.7 8.4 8.1 9.2 2.3
2016* 625,293 484,374 310,692 173,682 140,049 115,551 24,498 870 579,317 447,927 131,390 501,969 364,210 137,759 702,641 1.8 1.4 1.6 1.2 5.3 6.5 -0.3 . 4.3 5.2 1.4 4.1 5.3 1.0 2.2
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table presents annual data on the output components, the final expenditure categories and the income components of gross domestic product of the Netherlands. In the national accounts gross domestic product is approached from three points of view: from the output, from the generation of income and from the final expenditure. Gross domestic product is a main macroeconomic indicator. The volume change of gross domestic product is a measure for the economic growth of a country.

Data available from: 1969 up to and including 2016.

Status of the figures:
Data from 1969 up to and including 2015 are final. Data of 2016 are provisional. Since this table has been discontinued, data of 2016 will not become final.

Changes as of June 22nd 2018:
None. This table has been discontinued.
Statistics Netherlands has carried out a revision of the national accounts. New statistical sources and estimation methods have been used during the revision. Therefore this table has been replaced by table Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts. For further information see section 3.

When will new figures be published?
Not applicable anymore.

Description topics

GDP from the final expenditure
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called expenditure approach. In this approach the components are consumption by households, consumption by the general government, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports, minus imports. Consumption, fixed capital formation and changes in inventories add up to the so-called national final expenditure. By adding exports final expenditure is obtained. Intermediate consumption, goods and services used upon production, is not part of final expenditure.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Total
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government ‘consumes its own production’. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
Total
Households and NPISHs
Consumption expenditure by households and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Not all expenses made by households are seen as consumptive, households may invest as well. These investments mainly concern the purchase of houses and substantial costs on maintenance. Small costs on maintenance, indoor painting and the purchase of furniture is classified as consumption. This also applies to the purchase of cars and car maintenance.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government ‘consumes its own production’. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on produced assets that are used in a production process for more than one year. This may concern a building, dwelling, transport equipment or a machine. This in contrast with goods and services which are used up during the production process, the so-called intermediate use (e.g. iron ore). Fixed capital does lose value over time as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence. This is called consumption of fixed capital (also called depreciation). The value of fixed capital formation in which the consumption of fixed capital is not deducted is called gross fixed capital formation. Deduction of the consumption of fixed capital results in net fixed capital formation.

The following types of fixed assets exist: dwellings and other buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, weapon systems (included in machinery and equipment), computers, software, telecommunication equipment, research and development, cultivated biological resources, mineral exploration and evaluation, and costs of ownership transfer on non-produced assets, like land, contracts, leases and licences.
Total
Corporations and households
Gross fixed capital formation of (financial or non-financial) corporations and households including non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Fixed capital formation by households concerns houses, but also investments by the self-employed.
General government
Gross fixed capital formation of the sector general government. Fixed capital formation by the general government concerns e.g. investments in public infrastructure, research and development and weapon systems.
Changes in inventories incl. valuables
Changes in inventories including acquisitions less disposals of valuables.
Changes in the stock of raw materials, semi-finished products, work-in-progress (unfinished works like ships or oil rigs) and finished products still held by the producer. Changes in stock do not include work-in-progress in construction. Positive changes in inventories arise when products are finished in the reference period but not yet sold. Alternatively, they arise when goods are purchased for intermediate consumption but not yet used. Negative changes in inventories arise when goods from stocks have been sold, or used in the production process. A more extensive list of changes in inventories is found in the European System of Accounts 2010.

In measuring changes in inventories, changes in prices during the reference period are not allowed to have any effect. The initial and final inventory is therefore valued at the same price. Raw materials are valued at the price of purchase. Final products are valued at the selling price. Work-in-progress is valued at the cost-price.

Acquisitions less disposals of valuables consists of the acquisitions less disposals of precious stones, non-monetary gold, antiques, art objects and jewellery that are acquired and held primarily as stores of value. In the national accounts this transaction is mostly combined with changes in inventories.
Exports of goods and services
Transactions in goods and services (sales, barter and gifts) from residents (in the Netherlands) to non-residents. Exports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from residents to non-residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners.
Total
Exports of goods
Transactions in goods (sales, barter and gifts) from residents (in the Netherlands) to non-residents. Exports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from residents to non-residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners. Part of the exports of goods are re-exports: goods that were imported before being exported, after having received at most minor adaptations.
Exports of services
Transactions in services (sales, barter and gifts) from residents (in the Netherlands) to non-residents. Exports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from residents to non-residents. Exports of services include among others the following cases: transportation by resident carriers abroad, harbour services and ship maintenance to non-residents, works performed abroad by resident contractors. Expenses made in the Netherlands by foreign tourists, diplomats and cross-border workers.
Imports of goods and services (-)
Transactions in goods and services (sales, barter and gifts) from non-residents to residents (in the Netherlands). Imports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from non-residents to residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners.
Total
Imports of goods
Transactions in goods (sales, barter and gifts) from non-residents to residents (in the Netherlands). Imports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from non-residents to residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners. Part of the imports are raw materials, semifinished products, fuel and fixed assets. Furthermore, imports of goods may be re-exports: goods that were imported before being exported, after having received at most minor adaptations.
Imports of services
Transactions in services (sales, barter and gifts) from non-residents to residents (in the Netherlands). Imports of services applies among others to expenses made by Dutch companies abroad, like costs of transportation, banking costs and business travels. Imports by services are also made by the Dutch general government, among others by means of expenses made by Dutch embassies and consulates. Imports of services by households consist among others of imports of consumer goods and the direct consumptive expenditure by Dutch residents abroad.

Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.
Volume changes on previous year
The weighted average of the changes in the quantity and quality of the components of a certain goods or service transaction or balancing item, annual percentage changes.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Total
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government ‘consumes its own production’. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
Total
Households and NPISHs
Consumption expenditure by households and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Not all expenses made by households are seen as consumptive, households may invest as well. These investments mainly concern the purchase of houses and substantial costs on maintenance. Small costs on maintenance, indoor painting and the purchase of furniture is classified as consumption. This also applies to the purchase of cars and car maintenance.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government ‘consumes its own production’. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on produced assets that are used in a production process for more than one year. This may concern a building, dwelling, transport equipment or a machine. This in contrast with goods and services which are used up during the production process, the so-called intermediate use (e.g. iron ore). Fixed capital does lose value over time as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence. This is called consumption of fixed capital (also called depreciation). The value of fixed capital formation in which the consumption of fixed capital is not deducted is called gross fixed capital formation. Deduction of the consumption of fixed capital results in net fixed capital formation.

The following types of fixed assets exist: dwellings and other buildings and structures, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, weapon systems (included in machinery and equipment), computers, software, telecommunication equipment, research and development, cultivated biological resources, mineral exploration and evaluation, and costs of ownership transfer on non-produced assets, like land, contracts, leases and licences.
Total
Corporations and households
Gross fixed capital formation of (financial or non-financial) corporations and households including non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Fixed capital formation by households concerns houses, but also investments by the self-employed.
General government
Gross fixed capital formation of the sector general government. Fixed capital formation by the general government concerns e.g. investments in public infrastructure, research and development and weapon systems.
Changes in inventories incl. valuables
Changes in inventories including acquisitions less disposals of valuables.
Changes in the stock of raw materials, semi-finished products, work-in-progress (unfinished works like ships or oil rigs) and finished products still held by the producer. Changes in stock do not include work-in-progress in construction. Positive changes in inventories arise when products are finished in the reference period but not yet sold. Alternatively, they arise when goods are purchased for intermediate consumption but not yet used. Negative changes in inventories arise when goods from stocks have been sold, or used in the production process. A more extensive list of changes in inventories is found in the European System of Accounts 2010.

In measuring changes in inventories, changes in prices during the reference period are not allowed to have any effect. The initial and final inventory is therefore valued at the same price. Raw materials are valued at the price of purchase. Final products are valued at the selling price. Work-in-progress is valued at the cost-price.

Acquisitions less disposals of valuables consists of the acquisitions less disposals of precious stones, non-monetary gold, antiques, art objects and jewellery that are acquired and held primarily as stores of value. In the national accounts this transaction is mostly combined with changes in inventories.
Exports of goods and services
Transactions in goods and services (sales, barter and gifts) from residents (in the Netherlands) to non-residents. Exports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from residents to non-residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners.
Total
Exports of goods
Transactions in goods (sales, barter and gifts) from residents (in the Netherlands) to non-residents. Exports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from residents to non-residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners. Part of the exports of goods are re-exports: goods that were imported before being exported, after having received at most minor adaptations.
Exports of services
Transactions in services (sales, barter and gifts) from residents (in the Netherlands) to non-residents. Exports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from residents to non-residents. Exports of services include among others the following cases: transportation by resident carriers abroad, harbour services and ship maintenance to non-residents, works performed abroad by resident contractors. Expenses made in the Netherlands by foreign tourists, diplomats and cross-border workers.
Imports of goods and services (-)
Transactions in goods and services (sales, barter and gifts) from non-residents to residents (in the Netherlands). Imports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from non-residents to residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners.

Total
Imports of goods
Transactions in goods (sales, barter and gifts) from non-residents to residents (in the Netherlands). Imports of goods occurs when economic ownership of goods is passed from non-residents to residents. This applies irrespective of corresponding physical movements of goods across frontiers. An enterprise or institution is considered residential after it has been active in the Netherlands for at least one year. This applies irrespective of the question whether the enterprise or institute has foreign owners. Part of the imports are raw materials, semifinished products, fuel and fixed assets. Furthermore, imports of goods may be re-exports: goods that were imported before being exported, after having received at most minor adaptations.
Imports of services
Transactions in services (sales, barter and gifts) from non-residents to residents (in the Netherlands). Imports of services applies among others to expenses made by Dutch companies abroad, like costs of transportation, banking costs and business travels. Imports by services are also made by the Dutch general government, among others by means of expenses made by Dutch embassies and consulates. Imports of services by households consist among others of imports of consumer goods and the direct consumptive expenditure by Dutch residents abroad.

Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a quantity that expresses the size of an economy. The volume change of GDP during a reference period expresses the growth or shrinkage of the economy. Gross domestic product at market prices is the final result of the production activity of resident producer units. It can be defined in three ways:

- production approach: GDP is the sum of gross value added of the various institutional sectors or the various industries plus taxes and less subsidies on products (which are not allocated to sectors and industries). It is also the balancing item in the total economy production account;
- expenditure approach: GDP is the sum of final uses of goods and services by resident institutional units (final consumption and gross capital formation), plus exports and minus imports of goods and services;
- income approach: GDP is the sum of uses in the total economy generation of income account (compensation of employees, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, gross operating surplus and mixed income of the total economy).

Net domestic product at market prices (NDP) can be obtained by deducting consumption of fixed capital from GDP.