Education; education expenditure and CBS/OECD indicators

Education; education expenditure and CBS/OECD indicators

Education sectors Periods Expenditure on education Government Total government (million euros) Indicators Government expenditure on education Total government exp. on education (million euros) Indicators Government expenditure on education In % of GDP (% of GDP) Indicators Government expenditure on education In % of total government expenditure (%) Indicators Expenditure on education institutions In % of GDP Government (% of GDP)
Total education 2020* 40,204 43,020 5.4 11.2 4.7
(Pre-)primary education 2020* 12,821 12,820 1.6 3.3 1.6
Pre-primary and primary education 2020* 11,333 11,331 1.4 2.9 1.4
Special needs primary education 2020* 1,488 1,489 0.2 0.4 0.2
Secondary education 2020* 16,250 16,771 2.1 4.4 1.8
Secondary general education 2020* 10,860 10,861 1.4 2.9 1.3
Senior voc. and gen. adult sec. educ. 2020* 5,390 5,910 0.7 1.5 0.5
Tertiary education 2020* 11,133 13,429 1.7 3.5 1.3
Higher professional education 2020* 4,604 5,866 0.7 1.5 0.5
University education 2020* 6,529 7,563 1.0 2.0 0.8
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table gives an overview of expenditure on regular education within the Netherlands.

The government finances schools, colleges and universities. It pays for research which is done by universities on its behalf. Furthermore it provides student grants and loans, allowances for school costs, provisions for students with a disability and child care allowances as well as subsidies to companies and non-profit organisations. The government reclaims unjustified payments for student grants and loans and allowances for school costs. It also receives interest and repayments on student loans as well as EU subsidies for education.

Parents and/or students have to pay tuition fees for schools, colleges and universities, parent contributions and contributions for school activities. They also have to purchase books and materials, pay for transport from home to school and back for students who are not eligible for subsidised transport, pay for private tutoring, pay interest and repayments on student loans, and repay wrongfully received student grants, loans and allowances for school costs. Parents and/or students receive child care allowances, provisions for students with a disability and an allowance for school costs as well as student grants and loans and scholarships of companies.

Companies and non-profit organisations incur costs for supervising trainees and apprentices who combine learning with work experience. They also contribute to the cost of work related education of their employees and spend money on research that is outsourced to colleges for higher professional education and universities. Furthermore they contribute to the childcare allowances given to households and provide scholarships to students. Companies receive subsidies and tax benefits for the creation of apprenticeship places and trainee placements and for providing transport for pupils.

Organisations abroad contract universities in the Netherlands to undertake research for them. The European Union provides funds and subsidies for education to schools, colleges and universities as well as to the Dutch government. Foreign governments contribute to international schools in the Netherlands that operate under their nationality.

The table also contains various indicators used nationally and internationally to compare expenditure on education and place it in a broader context. The indicators are compounded on the basis of definitions of Statistics Netherlands and/or the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development). All figures presented have been calculated according to the standardised definitions of the OECD.

In this table tertiary education includes research and development, except for the indicator Expenditure on education institutions per student, excluding R&D.

The statistic on Education spending is compiled on a cash basis. This means that the education expenditure and revenues are allocated to the year in which they are paid out or received. However, the activity or transaction associated with the payment or receipt can take place in a different year.

Statistics Netherlands published the revised National Accounts in June 2018. Among other things, GDP and total government expenditures have been adjusted upwards as a result of the revision.

Data available from: 1995

Status of the figures:
Data recorded in the last available year are provisional figures.

Changes as of 28 December 2021:
The provisional figures for 2020 have been added.
The figures for 2019 have been adjusted from provisional to definite.

When will new figures be published?
Provisional figures for a year are published in December of the following year.
These figures are provisional because some sources of data are not yet available or complete. The provisional figures are updated when more reliable sources are available. Definite figures are published exactly one year after the provisional ones.

Description topics

Expenditure on education
Expenditure on education institutions and education by the government, households, companies, non-profit organisations and organisations abroad. Also includes government expenditure with regard to education on households and companies.
Income received is subtracted from this expenditure. For the government this includes reclaimed wrongfully paid student grants and loans, and allowances for school costs as well as interest received on student loans and EU subsidies for education. For households these are child care allowances, the allowances for school costs, provisions for students with a disability, scholarships of companies and part of the student grants and loans meant as an allowance for school and college fees, books and materials and public transport. For companies the compensation in the costs of supervising apprentices and trainees are subtracted from their expenditure. Except for the interest received this is done to avoid double counting, because the received income is used to cover (part of) the expenses.
Some expenditure and receipts are not included in the calculation of the total expenditure on education. For the government these are the student loans provided and received repayments on these loans. For households these are the allowances for the cost of living, the student loans and the repayments of these loans. For companies these are the subsidies received for providing transport for pupils. Student loans and the repayments are not included because they are not considered real expenditures as they will be repaid after a given time.
The allowances for the cost of living have a general purpose rather than education and are therefore not included in the cost of education. Similarly the subsidies given to companies outside the education sector for providing transport for pupils are excluded, as they provide this service purely for commercial reasons.
Government
Expenditure by central and local government on education institutions and education. Reclaimed wrongfully paid student grants and loans, and allowances for school costs as well as interest received on student loans and EU subsidies for education are subtracted from this expenditure. The calculation of total expenditure on education excludes student loans and the repayments on these loans.
Total government
Expenditure by central and local government on education institutions and education. Reclaimed wrongfully paid student grants and loans, and allowances for school costs as well as interest received on student loans and EU subsidies for education are subtracted from this expenditure. The calculation of total expenditure on education excludes student loans and the repayments on these loans.
Indicators
An indicator is a figure that gives an accurate indication of the value of something. The indicators Expenditure on education, Government expenditure on education and Expenditure on education institutions are used to place expenditure on education in a national or international context. The indicators are expressed as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), per capita, as a percentage of government expenditure or per student. The indicators are compounded on the basis of the definitions of CBS and/or the OECD.
Government expenditure on education
Government expenditure on education (OECD).
OECD Government expenditure on education. Following the OECD definitions this is government expenditure on education institutions and on households, companies and non-profit organisations. Student loans provided to households are included, government receipts are not. On these two points government spending according to the OECD differs from the public expenditures such as compiled by Statistics Netherlands under the subject 'Total expenditure on education – Government' in this table.
Both central and local government spend on education institutions: lump sum financing, operating costs and expenditure on contract research.
The government subsidises education participation through allowances for school costs and student grants and loans. These compensate students or their parents entirely of in part for the costs of tuition fees for school and college, books and materials, public transport and the cost of living. Students with a disability receive government allowances for provisions that enable them to participate in regular education. The government also provides child care allowances to households and subsidies to preschools and day care institutions. Part of it is related to the educational component of the activities of three-year-olds in preschool and day care and is counted as expenditure on education. The government also gives subsidies and tax benefits to companies. These are subsidies for providing transport for pupils and subsidies and tax benefits that partly compensate companies for the costs of supervising trainees and apprentices at various levels (vmbo, mbo and hbo) that combine learning with work experience.
Total government exp. on education
Total government expenditure on education. Following the OECD definitions this is government expenditure on education institutions and on households, companies and non-profit organisations. Student loans provided to households are included, government receipts are not. On these two points government spending according to the OECD differs from the public expenditures such as compiled by Statistics Netherlands under the subject 'Total expenditure on education – Government' in this table.
Both central and local government spend on education institutions: lump sum financing, operating costs and expenditure on contract research.
The government subsidises education participation through allowances for school costs and student grants and loans. These compensate students or their parents entirely of in part for the costs of tuition fees for school and college, books and materials, public transport and the cost of living. Students with a disability receive government allowances for provisions that enable them to participate in regular education. The government also provides child care allowances to households and subsidies to preschools and day care institutions. Part of it is related to the educational component of the activities of three-year-olds in preschool and day care and is counted as expenditure on education. The government also gives subsidies and tax benefits to companies. These are subsidies for providing transport for pupils and subsidies and tax benefits that partly compensate companies for the costs of supervising trainees and apprentices at various levels (vmbo, mbo and hbo) that combine learning with work experience.
In % of GDP
Government expenditure on education is expressed as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP). This indicator is set by the OECD.
Total government expenditure on education includes expenditure on education institutions and on households, companies and non-profit organisations. Student loans provided to households are included in this indicator, government receipts are not.
In % of total government expenditure
Government expenditure on education is expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure. This indicator is set by the OECD. Total government expenditure on education includes expenditure on education institutions and on households, companies and non-profit organisations. Student loans provided to households are included in this indicator, government receipts are not.
Expenditure on education institutions
Expenditure on education institutions (CBS/OECD).
Based on CBS/OECD definitions this is direct expenditure by the government, households, companies, non-profit organisations and foreign organisations on education institutions. Only the education institutions that provide regular education are included. These are government subsidised as well as private education institutions. This indicator is compiled in the same way by both CBS and the OECD, except that the expenditure on the educational component of the activities in preschool and day care are included in other expenditure on education by CBS and not in the expenditure on education institutions as is done by the OECD. As a result the figures for pre-primary education here are somewhat lower than in publications of the OECD.
In % of GDP
Expenditure on education institutions is expressed as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP). This indicator is compiled in the same way by both CBS and the OECD, except for the figures on pre-primary education. The expenditure on the educational component of the activities in preschool and day care are included in other expenditure on education by CBS and not in the expenditure on education institutions as is done by the OECD.
Government
Direct expenditure by the government on education institutions is expressed here as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP).