Investment climate; entrepreneurship international comparison 1990-2012

Investment climate; entrepreneurship international comparison 1990-2012

Countries Periods Business ownership rate (% of working population) Total entrepreneurial activity index (TEA index) Business demography Births of enterprises Births, total (aantal) Business demography Births of enterprises Total, relative (% of total number of enterprises) Business demography Exits of enterprises Exits, total (aantal) Business demography Exits of enterprises Total, relative (% of total number of enterprises) Business demography Balance of births and exits Balance (aantal) Business demography Balance of births and exits Balance, relative (% of total number of enterprises) Propensity towards entrepreneurship (% of respondents) Self-employment rate Men (% of male employment) Self-employment rate Women (% of female employment)
Denmark 1996 6.4 . 22,300 9.5 20,900 8.9 1,400 0.6 . 12.4 6.1
Denmark 2000 6.1 . 28,500 11.7 23,000 9.5 5,500 2.2 38 11.7 5.5
Denmark 2004 6.3 5.3 26,400 10.8 23,800 9.8 2,600 1.0 38 11.9 5.2
Denmark 2008 7.0 4.4 33,600 12.9 32,000 12.3 1,600 0.6 . 12.1 5.1
Denmark 2009 7.2 3.6 24,800 9.5 34,100 13.1 -9,300 -3.6 32 12.4 5.4
Denmark 2010 . 3.8 . . . . . . . 11.7 5.5
Denmark 2011 . 4.6 . . . . . . . 11.9 5.3
Finland 1996 8.0 . 21,900 . 18,500 . 3,400 . . 19.7 10.5
Finland 2000 8.1 . 18,200 8.6 15,700 7.4 2,500 1.2 27 17.8 9.2
Finland 2004 8.2 4.4 21,400 10.2 17,000 8.1 4,400 2.1 28 16.7 8.6
Finland 2008 8.8 7.3 26,100 11.1 21,000 8.9 5,100 2.2 . 16.8 8.6
Finland 2009 9.3 5.2 22,900 9.7 20,100 8.5 2,800 1.2 41 18.0 9.1
Finland 2010 . 5.7 24,500 10.2 16,400 6.8 8,100 3.4 . 17.7 9.0
Finland 2011 . 6.3 . . . . . . . 17.7 8.8
Germany 1996 8.2 . 338,400 12.1 231,600 . 106,800 . . 12.7 8.1
Germany 2000 8.7 . 314,400 9.9 232,700 7.1 81,700 2.8 48 13.4 7.9
Germany 2004 9.3 5.1 505,200 17.7 377,300 13.2 127,900 4.5 39 14.9 8.8
Germany 2008 9.7 3.8 346,700 11.4 369,900 12.1 -23,200 -0.7 . 14.1 8.9
Germany 2009 9.8 4.1 361,800 12.0 352,700 11.7 9,100 0.3 41 14.4 8.5
Germany 2010 . 4.2 345,400 11.6 345,400 11.6 0 0.0 . 14.4 8.4
Germany 2011 . 5.6 . . . . . . . 14.5 8.5
The Netherlands 1996 10.2 . 70,500 10.3 36,700 5.3 33,800 5.0 . 13.6 10.3
The Netherlands 2000 10.9 . 88,000 11.1 48,500 6.1 39,500 5.0 41 12.6 9.4
The Netherlands 2004 10.6 5.1 59,200 8.8 43,600 6.5 15,600 2.3 33 14.1 9.6
The Netherlands 2008 11.9 5.2 91,700 12.1 50,900 6.7 40,800 5.4 . 15.8 10.1
The Netherlands 2009 11.9 7.2 83,200 10.7 54,600 7.0 28,600 3.7 42 16.1 10.5
The Netherlands 2010 . 7.2 90,100 11.1 58,000 7.2 32,100 3.9 . 18.0 11.5
The Netherlands 2011 . 8.2 . . . . . . . 18.0 11.5
Sweden 1996 8.1 . . . . . . . . 15.6 6.0
Sweden 2000 8.3 . . . . . . . 31 14.5 5.7
Sweden 2004 8.1 3.7 39,300 6.5 32,200 5.3 7,100 1.2 35 14.3 5.2
Sweden 2008 8.7 . 45,200 7.1 37,400 5.9 7,800 1.2 . 14.5 5.9
Sweden 2009 8.8 . . 7.1 . . . . 32 14.7 6.2
Sweden 2010 . 4.9 . . . . . . . 15.0 6.4
Sweden 2011 . 5.8 . . . . . . . 14.5 6.0
United Kingdom 1996 11.1 . 419,500 . . . . . . 19.6 9.3
United Kingdom 2000 10.5 . 451,200 13.3 444,800 13.1 6,400 0.2 48 16.7 8.3
United Kingdom 2004 11.2 6.3 427,900 9.7 442,400 13.1 -14,500 -3.4 41 17.9 7.9
United Kingdom 2008 11.5 5.9 490,600 9.6 308,400 8.2 182,200 1.4 . 17.8 8.2
United Kingdom 2009 11.4 5.7 429,900 9.4 385,300 10.1 44,600 -0.7 46 18.0 8.5
United Kingdom 2010 . 6.4 474,500 9.7 385,700 11.2 88,800 -1.5 . 18.2 8.9
United Kingdom 2011 . 7.3 . . . . . . . 18.3 9.0
United States 1996 10.4 . 2,394,300 11.6 1,821,000 8.8 573,300 2.8 . 9.8 6.9
United States 2000 9.8 . 2,253,800 10.1 2,001,800 8.9 252,000 1.2 69 8.6 6.1
United States 2004 10.1 11.3 2,235,900 12.7 2,011,000 8.8 224,900 3.9 61 8.9 6.1
United States 2008 9.6 10.8 2,272,100 13.0 2,405,100 10.1 -133,000 2.9 . 8.3 5.6
United States 2009 9.3 8.0 2,214,400 11.3 2,446,400 10.4 -232,000 0.9 55 8.4 5.7
United States 2010 . 7.6 2,269,000 13.8 2,233,800 9.6 35,200 4.2 . 8.3 5.6
United States 2011 . 12.3 . . . . . . . . .
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table provides for several countries an overview of :
- business ownership rate;
- prospective and young entrepreneurship;
- firm turbulence (births and exits of enterprises, business survival rate);
- fast-growing enterprises;
- propensity towards entrepreneurship;
- self-employment rate (by sex).
High business turnover rates, many fast-growing enterprises, many young entrepreneurs and a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship are an indication of a favourable investment climate.

Note:
Comparable definitions are used to compare the figures presented internationally. The definitions sometimes differ from definitions used by Statistics Netherlands. The figures in this table could differ from Dutch figures presented elsewhere on the website of Statistics Netherlands.

Data available from 1990 up to 2012.

Status of the figures:
The external sources of these data frequently supply adjusted figures on preceding periods. These adjusted data are not mentioned as such in the table.

Changes as of 22 December 2017:
No, table is stopped.

When will new figures be published?
Not.

Description topics

Business ownership rate
The rate is defined as the number of entrepreneurs as a percentage of the employed and job seeking labour force. Entrepreneurs are defined as: all owners of companies managing the company and where for the concerning persons entrepreneurship is the main activity. This definition includes therefore both self-employed persons of non-legal bodies, and directors/large shareholders of legal persons. The rate excludes the agricultural sector.

Source: EIM, on the basis of Labour Force Statistics database (LFS) of the OECD and additional figures of Eurostat.

The OECD uses no uniform definition of entrepreneur in the LFS, but the definition in use in the country concerned. The result is that country
figures are not fully comparable. Besides, the statistic has a lot of breaks in the time series. EIM has developed a method to compare data from several countries with each other on the basis of an uniform definition. EIM examined which definition of an entrepreneur is used by the various countries in various statistics. Then for one year raising factors, c.q. split-off factors have been determined per country (mostly for the year 1992) to reach an uniform definition. In some countries (among which The Netherlands and the USA) estimates have been made for the directors/large shareholders, whereas for some other countries estimates have been made of the so-called cooperating family members who have been deducted from the number of entrepreneurs in the statistics. The raising factors and split-off factors have been kept constant in the time for a number of countries for lack of information per year. In addition, corrections have been made for the time series discontinuities in the OECD material by taking in the year of the times series discontinuity the average development of the preceding and the following year as the growth figure. Up to 1991 Germany refers only to West Germany. The later years concern the reunified Germany.
Total entrepreneurial activity index
Young and upcoming entrepreneurship (TEA index).
The TEA index is the sum of the number of persons starting a business (starting entrepreneurs) and the number of owners of businesses that were established less than 3.5 years before the reference date (young entrepreneurs), as a percentage of the labour force. In the TEA index only establishments of legal bodies are counted (Ltd. or plc for example).

Source: EIM, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM).

The Total Entrepreneurial Activity Index (TEA-index) is an index for the degree of new entrepreneurship by country and is calculated as the percentage of people who undertake such activities in comparison to the labour force (population aged 18 to 65 years). The GEM started in 1999, on the initiative of 10 countries. Since 2001 the EIM has taken part in the GEM within the programme 'MKB en Ondernemerschap' (SME and Entrepreneurship). Annually more than thirty countries take part in this study, among which 20 OECD countries, so that a good international comparison is possible of the degree of new entrepreneurship and of the investment climate.
Business demography
The definitions for births and exits of companies used here differ from the definitions used elsewhere for figures published by Statistics Netherlands for the Netherlands. In the national figures Statistics Netherlands only counts companies where at least 1 person works at least 15 hours a week or more. In this international comparison a company is counted when at least 1 person works at least 1 hour a week. The differences are shown in the figure below.
International comparison (this table):
Population: businesses excluding agriculture and fishery (NACE Rev 3.1 sectors C-K; N-O). Health care is included; government and education are not. The NACE Rev 3.1 is the English-language Standard Industrial Classification, which is used by Eurostat.
Entity: Legal unit
Definition birth: Starting enterprises and new daughters, when active.
Definition exit of a company: Active companies stopping or going bankrupt. Mergers and take-overs are not counted, except for single owner companies.
Definition active company: At least 1 person works 1 hours or more a week in the company.
National Statistics Netherlands figures (published elsewhere):
Population: Businesses excluding enterprises in agriculture, fishery, financial institutions, government and the subsidised sector.
Entity: Company Definition establishment: New economically active companies. Continuations of one or more existing companies (merger, take-over, independence, change of owner or name) are not considered new.
Definition exit of a company: The company is no longer part of the active business population in year (t+1), whereas it was in the previous year (t). An additional condition is that no other companies are involved in the event. That is, a change in structure (merger, take-over, split, separation) does not count as the exit of the company.
Definition active company: At least 1 person works 15 hours or more a week.

Source: EIM, International Benchmark on Entrepreneurship.
Births of enterprises
Number of establishments of enterprises.

Source: EIM.
Births, total
Total, relative
Exits of enterprises
Number of enterprises that stopped.

Source: EIM.
Exits, total
Total, relative
Balance of births and exits
The difference between the number of gross births and exits of enterprises.

Source: EIM.
Balance
Balance, relative
Propensity towards entrepreneurship
Percentage of people interviewed (sample of residents of the European Union and some other countries, among which the United States, Norway and Iceland) who prefer being an entrepreneur over being an employee. The exact wording of the question was: Suppose you could choose between different kinds of jobs, which one would you prefer:
being an employee;
being self-employed;
none of these.
The European Union consists of the following countries. The year in which they joined is shown between brackets: Austria (1995), Belgium (1958), Bulgaria (2007), Cyprus (2004), Czech Republic (2004), Denmark (1973), Estonia (2004), Finland (1995), France(1958), Germany (1958), Greece (1981), Hungary (2004), Ireland (1973), Italy (1958), Latvia (2004), Lithuania (2004), Luxembourg (1958), Malta (2004), the Netherlands (1958), Poland (2004), Portugal (1986), Romania (2007), Slovakia (2004), Slovenia (2004), Spain (1986), Sweden (1995), and the UK (1973).

Source: European Commission; Flash Eurobarometer 160 'Entrepreneurship' (2004) and Flash Eurobarometer 192 'Entrepreneurship survey' (2007).
Note: the higher the percentage, the more entrepreneurship is preferred over being an employee.
Self-employment rate
Self-employed persons include employers (with personnel), own-account workers, members of producers' co-operatives, and unpaid family workers (this last group is particularly important in farming and retail trade). Company directors are not considered to be self-employed entrepreneurs. Someone is part of the employed labour force when he or she is 15 years or older and works more than 1 hour a week.

Source: OECD, Factbook 2010.
Men
Share of male employed persons that is an entrepreneur.
Women
Share of female employed persons that is an entrepreneur.