Invest.climate;functioning of government international comparison 1990-2012

Invest.climate;functioning of government international comparison 1990-2012

Countries Periods State control (score on scale 0-6) Online availability of basic public serv (% of basic public services) Starting a new business Required number of days (number of days) Starting a new business Required number of procedures (number of procedures) Starting a new business Administrative burden (score on scale 1-7) Government effectiveness (score on scale 0-100) Ad hoc and sectoral state support (% of Gross Domestic Product) Corporate tax rate (% of net revenues)
Australia 2012 . . 2 2 . . . 30.0
Austria 2012 . . 28 8 . . . 25.0
Belgium 2012 . . 4 3 . . . 34.0
Canada 2012 . . 5 1 . . . 15.0
Czech Republic 2012 . . 20 9 . . . 19.0
Denmark 2012 . . 6 4 . . . 25.0
Finland 2012 . . 14 3 . . . 24.5
France 2012 . . 7 5 . . . 34.4
Germany 2012 . . 15 9 . . . 15.8
Hungary 2012 . . 4 4 . . . 19.0
Ireland 2012 . . 13 4 . . . 12.5
Italy 2012 . . 6 6 . . . 27.5
Japan 2012 . . 23 8 . . . 30.0
The Netherlands 2012 . . 8 6 . . . 25.0
Poland 2012 . . 32 6 . . . 19.0
South Korea 2012 . . 7 5 . . . 22.0
Spain 2012 . . 28 10 . . . 30.0
Sweden 2012 . . 15 3 . . . 26.3
United Kingdom 2012 . . 13 6 . . . 24.0
United States 2012 . . 6 6 . . . 35.0
EU-15 2012 . . . . . . . .
EU-25 2012 . . . . . . . .
EU-27 2012 . . . . . . . .
OECD 2012 . . . . . . . .
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Dataset is not available.

This table provides an international overview of several aspects of how the government functions in relation to the investment climate. The functioning of the apparatus of government is about two roles, namely:
(1) the government corrects markets that do not work well. It is expressed by the degree in which the government exerts influence on economic activity (for example by state control, sectoral and ad hoc state support and rules for starting up a business);
(2) the government as a market party, for example as a supplier of online basic public services.

Comparable definitions are used to compare the figures presented internationally. The definitions sometimes differ from definitions used by Statistics Netherlands. The figures in this table could differ from Dutch figures presented elsewhere on the website of Statistics Netherlands.

Data available from 1990 up to 2012.

Status of the figures:
The external sources of these data frequently supply adjusted figures on preceding periods. These adjusted data are not mentioned as such in the table.

Changes as of 22 December 2017:
No, table is stopped.

When will new figures be published?

Description topics

State control
One index of product market regulation (PMR). It concerns both state property and involvement in and control of activity. State control is expressed in scores of 0 to 6. A high score indicates more state control. For a complete description of how the score is determined and a further description of PMR indicessystem, see the reference in the general explanation.

Source: OECD, Indicators of Product Market Regulation.
Online availability of basic public serv
Online availability of basic public services. Basic public services for individuals and companies via internet and other digital techniques. The indicator is about online availability of 20 basic public services for individuals and companies. It must be possible for the whole procedure to be completed online. Elementary services are for example tax declarations, applications for licenses or birth certificates.

2001-2004: measured in October of the year concerned.
2006: measured in April.
2007: period of measurement is unknown.

Source: Eurostat
Starting a new business
Required number of days
Required number of days for starting up a new enterprise. It concerns meeting the legal requirements, such as registration at the Chamber of Commerce and the tax authorities.

Sources: World Bank.
Required number of procedures
Number of procedures to pass through for starting up a venture. This indicator gives an impression of the ease of starting a new venture in each of the countries concerned. It concerns both the procedures officially required before establishing a venture formally, and the procedures which must be accomplished by the entrepreneur after the establishment. Procedures which are required for all ventures are taken into account. Procedures which are specific for a certain line of business are not counted.

Source: World Bank.
Administrative burden
Score on the question 'starting a new business in your country is generally? (1 = extremely difficult and time consuming,... 7 = easy)'.

Source: World Economic Forum.
Government effectiveness
Measuring government effectiveness is based on a combined index of the World Bank on government competence (expertise and powers) and the quality of public services. The score goes from 0 (totally ineffective) to 100 (very effective). A high value indicates an effective government. The index combines the indicators on the quality of public services, the quality of government bureaucracy, the competence of civil servants, the independence of civil servants, and the credibility of government policy.

Source: World Bank, Governance matters.
Ad hoc and sectoral state support
State support given on ad hoc basis to individual companies, for example to save or reorganise the company, and state support to specific sectors (agriculture, fishery, industry, coal, transport excluding railroads and other services). For methodological reasons, aid to the financial sector is not included in these figures. Support to the financial sector is regarded by Eurostat as a crisis measure which disturbs an accurate picture of spending on aid to industry and services.

Source: Eurostat, Structural Indicators.
Corporate tax rate
The sum of the taxes levied by the national and local authorities on the income (profits) of companies. For countries with a progressive tariff system, where a lower tax rate is paid when profit falls below a certain tax threshold, we show only the top rate.
Australia and the United Kingdom:
Tax years do not run parallel with calendar years. The values refer to the situation starting in July and April.
Belgium (as from 2006):
The corporation tax can be partly compensated by deductions of notional interest. The deduction is not related to the results of the company, but only to the amount of assets and the yield of long-term government bonds. The deduction means that a relatively low result (before taxes) on the net assets of a company leads to a lower effective tax rate.
The tariff includes allowances, but excludes local company tax (Taxe professionnelle) and turnover-related solidarity tax (Contribution de Solidarité).
Including regional company tax (Gewerbesteuer) and allowances.
Excludes turnover-related local company tax and, as from 2004, innovation tax and, as from 2005, special allowances for financial and credit institutions.
Excludes regional company tax (Imposta regional sulle Attivit Produttive;
The Netherlands (from 2008):
Concerns the taxable income above EUR 200.000.
Poland (from 2008):
There is no decentral government tax, but local authorities share in tax revenues to a certain percentage (for all local authorities).
United States:
The tariff of the states is a weighted average of the 'state corporate marginal income tax rate' that is levied by individual states.

Source: OECD, Tax Database.