Income distribution of households; National Accounts

Income distribution of households; National Accounts

Characteristics of households Periods Total amount Gross operating surplus (million euros) Total amount Gross mixed income (million euros) Total amount Gross primary income (million euros) Total amount Gross disposable income (million euros) Total amount Gross adjusted disposable income (million euros) Total amount Gross saving (million euros) Total amount Resources Total (million euros) Total amount Resources Compensation of employees Total (million euros) Total amount Resources Compensation of employees Wages and salaries (million euros) Total amount Resources Compensation of employees Employers' social contributions (million euros) Total amount Resources Property income Total (million euros) Total amount Resources Property income Interest (million euros) Total amount Resources Property income Distributed income of corporations (million euros) Total amount Resources Property income Other investment income (million euros) Total amount Resources Property income Rent (million euros) Total amount Resources Social contributions and benefits Total (million euros) Total amount Resources Social contributions and benefits Employers' imputed social contributions (million euros) Total amount Resources Social contributions and benefits Social benefits in cash Total (million euros) Total amount Resources Social contributions and benefits Social benefits in cash Social sec. non-pension benefits in cash (million euros) Total amount Resources Social contributions and benefits Social benefits in cash Other social insurance benefits (million euros) Total amount Resources Social contributions and benefits Social benefits in cash Social assistance benefits in cash (million euros) Total amount Resources Other current transfers (million euros) Total amount Resources Social transfers in kind (million euros) Total amount Resources Capital transfers (million euros) Total amount Uses Total (million euros) Total amount Uses Property income (million euros) Total amount Uses Current taxes on income and wealth Total (million euros) Total amount Uses Current taxes on income and wealth Current taxes on income (million euros) Total amount Uses Current taxes on income and wealth Other current taxes (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Total (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Net social contributions Total (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Net social contributions Employers' actual social contributions (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Net social contributions Employers' imputed social contributions (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Net social contributions Households' actual social contributions (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Net social contributions Households' social contrib. supplements (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Net social contributions The social insur. scheme service charges (million euros) Total amount Uses Social contributions and benefits Other social insurance benefits (million euros) Total amount Uses Other current transfers (million euros) Total amount Uses Capital transfers (million euros) Total amount Uses Consumption of fixed capital (million euros) Total amount Adjustm. change in pension entitlements (million euros)
Total 2019* 20,283 77,570 532,202 396,756 539,113 76,404 741,644 378,807 296,347 82,460 62,416 1,822 18,612 41,977 5 136,034 353 135,681 54,987 56,877 23,817 16,602 142,357 5,428 303,004 6,874 75,389 67,468 7,921 190,730 190,377 67,689 14,771 80,073 36,905 -9,061 353 21,963 8,048 30,802 27,270
Disposable income: 1st 20%-group 2019* 465 3,024 14,645 22,413 51,640 -16,634 66,102 8,030 6,332 1,697 3,434 90 214 3,130 0 21,385 5 21,380 10,137 1,817 9,426 3,294 29,227 732 19,348 309 4,390 3,145 1,245 9,823 9,818 1,393 304 7,024 2,464 -1,367 5 2,698 2,128 1,847 1,031
Disposable income: 2nd 20%-group 2019* 2,252 3,924 38,231 46,708 77,712 -3,462 98,193 27,910 21,612 6,298 4,688 149 159 4,380 0 30,680 14 30,666 15,971 7,889 6,806 3,040 31,004 871 27,357 542 3,879 2,432 1,447 18,347 18,333 5,170 1,128 9,965 3,695 -1,625 14 3,018 1,571 2,543 -1,192
Disposable income: 3rd 20%-group 2019* 4,956 6,829 86,700 71,473 101,239 8,047 139,158 68,053 52,421 15,632 8,119 313 316 7,490 0 28,802 27 28,775 12,650 12,634 3,491 3,300 29,766 1,118 50,057 1,257 7,875 6,216 1,659 35,474 35,447 12,832 2,800 15,035 6,691 -1,911 27 3,982 1,469 4,902 2,682
Disposable income: 4th 20%-group 2019* 6,253 11,723 137,825 95,893 123,687 20,824 181,883 110,039 84,793 25,246 11,689 455 617 10,616 1 27,628 52 27,576 9,285 15,806 2,485 3,443 27,794 1,290 76,099 1,880 14,665 12,906 1,759 53,329 53,277 20,724 4,522 20,422 9,676 -2,067 52 5,011 1,214 6,988 8,548
Disposable income: 5th 20%-group 2019* 6,357 52,070 254,801 160,269 184,835 67,629 256,308 164,775 131,189 33,587 34,486 815 17,306 16,361 4 27,539 255 27,284 6,944 18,731 1,609 3,525 24,566 1,417 130,143 2,886 44,580 42,769 1,811 73,757 73,502 27,570 6,017 27,627 14,379 -2,091 255 7,254 1,666 14,522 16,201
Type: Single man 2019* 2,412 7,787 53,665 41,952 53,092 -6,390 74,362 38,145 29,876 8,269 5,940 167 1,628 4,145 0 16,473 34 16,439 6,727 6,188 3,524 2,123 11,140 541 32,233 619 7,900 6,938 962 19,904 19,870 6,788 1,481 9,143 3,374 -916 34 2,504 1,306 3,030 2,066
Type: Single woman 2019* 2,546 3,759 34,951 37,597 58,095 -12,869 76,290 23,148 17,833 5,315 5,893 150 874 4,869 0 23,991 14 23,977 12,095 8,652 3,230 2,264 20,498 496 25,558 396 5,372 4,485 887 16,402 16,388 4,363 952 7,916 4,120 -963 14 1,834 1,554 2,390 -1,572
Type: One-parent family 2019* 863 4,052 27,845 23,480 35,327 4,615 45,602 20,994 16,327 4,667 2,268 74 504 1,690 0 8,864 16 8,848 1,968 1,906 4,974 1,281 11,847 348 15,127 332 3,155 2,645 510 9,958 9,942 3,831 836 4,518 1,380 -623 16 1,398 284 1,628 1,996
Type: Couple, with child(ren) 2019* 5,176 38,990 248,103 157,552 211,184 73,155 292,265 187,241 147,046 40,195 20,199 761 8,165 11,270 3 23,868 186 23,682 6,211 9,777 7,694 5,291 53,632 2,034 124,175 3,503 32,902 30,244 2,658 77,401 77,215 32,994 7,200 30,402 9,928 -3,309 186 9,408 961 13,103 23,327
Type: Couple, no children 2019* 8,919 19,039 148,494 118,655 153,033 15,042 218,178 96,032 74,838 21,194 26,329 614 6,918 18,795 2 55,100 88 55,012 24,719 28,245 2,048 4,604 34,378 1,735 94,223 1,824 23,547 20,974 2,573 60,130 60,042 17,398 3,797 24,472 17,090 -2,715 88 5,866 2,856 9,294 1,065
Other types of households 2019* 367 3,943 19,144 17,520 28,382 2,851 34,947 13,247 10,427 2,820 1,787 56 523 1,208 0 7,738 15 7,723 3,267 2,109 2,347 1,039 10,862 274 11,688 200 2,513 2,182 331 6,935 6,920 2,315 505 3,622 1,013 -535 15 953 1,087 1,357 388
Source of income: mixed income 2019* 2,029 54,707 88,635 66,530 80,067 28,389 55,540 13,368 10,699 2,669 19,698 379 14,797 4,520 2 6,587 280 6,307 2,564 2,212 1,531 1,734 13,537 616 32,980 1,167 13,857 13,031 826 13,448 13,168 2,191 478 8,131 3,351 -983 280 3,120 1,388 9,713 2,575
Source of income: compensation of employ 2019* 9,696 18,401 407,448 242,325 309,847 87,241 499,176 358,907 280,369 78,538 25,377 1,083 2,982 21,310 2 35,394 60 35,334 8,392 18,876 8,066 8,695 67,522 3,281 215,715 4,934 50,853 46,419 4,434 144,854 144,794 64,469 14,069 52,462 18,988 -5,194 60 13,504 1,570 15,089 45,907
Source of income: old age benefits 2019* 7,734 2,386 27,609 65,590 111,291 -32,256 138,338 2,812 2,315 497 15,276 317 767 14,191 1 71,284 9 71,275 35,039 34,711 1,525 2,353 45,701 912 41,000 598 8,427 6,627 1,800 23,778 23,769 408 89 12,090 13,108 -1,926 9 3,453 4,744 4,667 -21,877
Source of income: other 2019* 824 2,076 8,510 22,311 37,908 -6,970 48,590 3,720 2,964 756 2,065 43 66 1,956 0 22,769 4 22,765 8,992 1,078 12,695 3,820 15,597 619 13,309 175 2,252 1,391 861 8,650 8,646 621 135 7,390 1,458 -958 4 1,886 346 1,333 665
Main earner: to 35 years 2019* 1,608 12,331 89,100 62,868 82,661 8,711 111,045 74,464 57,557 16,908 1,628 178 517 933 0 10,068 51 10,017 1,444 3,101 5,472 4,387 19,793 705 41,863 933 8,540 7,086 1,454 29,231 29,180 13,879 3,029 13,130 655 -1,513 51 2,917 242 4,204 7,173
Main earner: 35 to 50 years 2019* 3,315 28,432 184,269 118,745 158,991 42,463 220,672 143,504 112,497 31,007 11,848 579 4,862 6,406 1 19,833 138 19,695 4,676 6,502 8,517 3,866 40,246 1,375 92,596 2,830 24,636 22,520 2,116 57,493 57,355 25,453 5,554 23,467 5,295 -2,414 138 7,094 543 9,337 16,878
Main earner: 50 to 65 years 2019* 6,978 29,620 213,063 135,646 168,759 50,954 251,355 151,060 118,341 32,718 27,768 603 8,188 18,975 2 31,422 137 31,285 10,784 12,765 7,736 5,652 33,113 2,340 118,236 2,361 29,822 27,465 2,357 76,647 76,510 26,857 5,861 29,824 16,938 -2,970 137 8,020 1,386 11,066 23,313
Main earner: 65 years or older 2019* 8,382 7,187 45,770 79,497 128,702 -25,724 158,572 9,779 7,952 1,827 21,172 462 5,045 15,663 2 74,711 27 74,684 38,083 34,509 2,092 2,697 49,205 1,008 50,309 750 12,391 10,397 1,994 27,359 27,332 1,500 327 13,652 14,017 -2,164 27 3,932 5,877 6,195 -20,094
Home ownership: Owner-occupied home 2019* 20,564 59,823 420,191 289,311 371,688 78,849 522,858 293,076 229,516 63,560 53,282 1,715 17,551 34,011 5 81,334 279 81,055 30,791 43,256 7,008 9,207 82,377 3,582 233,958 6,553 61,748 56,880 4,868 144,105 143,826 52,175 11,385 55,448 30,453 -5,635 279 15,569 5,983 26,831 24,388
Home ownership: Rent with rent subsidy 2019* -22 3,030 14,465 27,363 52,058 -7,370 61,678 9,970 7,815 2,155 1,519 5 14 1,500 0 22,559 11 22,548 9,337 2,024 11,187 2,321 24,695 614 12,270 33 1,755 710 1,045 8,198 8,187 1,769 386 6,188 978 -1,134 11 2,030 254 843 -318
Home ownership: Rent: no rent subsidy 2019* -308 13,745 93,393 74,038 102,985 6,728 142,695 73,031 56,821 16,210 7,205 92 970 6,143 0 27,914 62 27,852 13,052 10,700 4,100 4,470 28,947 1,128 52,906 281 11,152 9,303 1,849 36,630 36,568 13,306 2,904 17,150 5,258 -2,050 62 3,957 886 2,667 3,667
Home ownership: Other 2019* 49 972 4,153 6,044 12,382 -1,803 14,413 2,730 2,195 535 410 10 77 323 0 4,227 1 4,226 1,807 897 1,522 604 6,338 104 3,870 7 734 575 159 1,797 1,796 439 96 1,287 216 -242 1 407 925 461 -467
Net worth: 1st 20%-group 2019* -372 4,787 44,945 40,136 63,282 -1,499 83,435 38,449 30,194 8,255 2,434 60 1,618 755 1 15,042 4 15,038 4,241 1,669 9,128 3,739 23,146 625 24,383 354 5,086 3,880 1,206 15,995 15,991 6,776 1,479 8,677 387 -1,328 4 2,508 440 2,264 3,048
Net worth: 2nd 20%-group 2019* 750 3,270 55,727 49,833 77,821 709 106,553 49,530 38,422 11,108 2,695 100 291 2,304 0 22,744 10 22,734 11,454 4,402 6,878 2,781 27,988 815 32,683 518 5,720 4,337 1,383 22,766 22,756 9,118 1,990 11,565 1,613 -1,530 10 2,933 746 1,632 3,300
Net worth: 3rd 20%-group 2019* 3,542 7,889 102,928 75,671 104,236 14,262 148,650 86,757 66,875 19,882 6,350 325 733 5,291 1 22,696 34 22,662 11,086 8,347 3,229 3,183 28,565 1,099 55,932 1,609 10,257 8,594 1,663 38,883 38,849 16,321 3,562 16,299 4,513 -1,846 34 3,994 1,189 4,426 7,546
Net worth: 4th 20%-group 2019* 6,971 16,560 128,639 93,627 125,058 20,015 172,221 95,508 74,106 21,402 11,568 436 1,633 9,498 1 29,008 80 28,928 13,296 12,971 2,661 3,366 31,431 1,340 71,571 1,967 15,136 13,351 1,785 47,052 46,972 17,568 3,834 19,131 8,531 -2,092 80 5,198 2,218 7,651 7,945
Net worth: 5th 20%-group 2019* 9,392 45,064 199,963 137,489 168,716 42,917 230,785 108,563 86,750 21,813 39,369 901 14,337 24,129 2 46,544 225 46,319 14,910 29,488 1,921 3,533 31,227 1,549 118,435 2,426 39,190 37,306 1,884 66,034 65,809 17,906 3,906 24,401 21,861 -2,265 225 7,330 3,455 14,829 5,431
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table describes the income distribution of the sector households in the national accounts over different household groups. Households are identified by main source of income, living situation, household composition, age classes of the head of the household, income class by 20% groups, and net worth class by 20% groups.

Data available from: 2015.

Status of the figures:
Data of 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019 are provisional.

Changes as of September 10th 2021:
The figures of 2015-2018 are revised, because national accounts figures are changed due to the revision policy of Statistics Netherlands. For 2018 also microdata are added that were not available before. Results for 2019 are added to the table.

When will new figures be published?
New figures will be released in September 2022.

Description topics

Total amount
Gross operating surplus
The surplus that remains after compensation of employees and taxes less subsidies on production and imports have been subtracted from the sum of value added at basic prices. For the self-employed (who are part of the sector households) the surplus is called mixed income, because it is partly a reward for their entrepreneurship compensation of labour.
The operating surplus of households equals housing services produced for own consumption by owner-occupiers.

In the system of national accounts gross means that consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) has not been subtracted. When it has, net is used.
Gross mixed income
Mixed income is for households mainly equal to the income earned by sole proprietors and other entrepreneurs personally liable for all gains and losses from their activities. The income earned has both an element of wage income as well as profit since the entrepreneur is both rewarded for the provided labour input as well as the undertaken risks. Included in mixed income are rentals received from letting real estate and income earned from black and illegal activities.
In the system of national accounts gross means that consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) has not been subtracted. When it has, net is used.
Gross primary income
Total primary income received by resident institutional units: compensation of employees, operating surplus / mixed income (gross), net property income and net taxes on production and imports less subsidies. Incomes flowing from one domestic sector to another have no effect on net national income. Gross national income (at market prices) equals GDP minus primary income paid by resident institutional units to non-resident institutional units plus primary income received by resident institutional units from the rest of the world. The division of payments by member states to the European Union is largely based upon differences in gross national income.

National income is not a production concept but an income concept, which is more significant if expressed in net terms, i.e. after deduction of consumption of fixed capital.
Gross disposable income
The sum of the gross disposable incomes of the institutional sectors. Gross national disposable income equals gross national income (at market prices) minus current transfers (current taxes on income, wealth et cetera, social contributions, social benefits and other current transfers) paid to non-resident units, plus current transfers received by resident units from the rest of the world. Because disposable national income is not a production concept but an income concept, it is usually expressed in net terms, i.e. after deduction of depreciation (consumption of fixed capital).
Gross adjusted disposable income
Adjusted disposable income is equal to disposable income of households including any income transfers in kind provided to households free of charge by general government or non-profit institutions serving households. This variable facilitates comparisons over time and across countries when there are differences or changes in economic and social conditions.

In the system of national accounts gross means that consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) has not been subtracted. When it has, net is used.

Gross saving
The portion of disposable income that has not been used for final consumption expenditure.
Resources
Resources are transactions which add to the economic value of sectors.
Total
Compensation of employees
The compensation of employees is the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an employer to an employee in return for work done by the latter during an accounting period. The compensation of employees is equal to the sum of wages and salaries and employers' social contributions.
Total
Wages and salaries
Wages and salaries are the remunerations an employee receives in return for work done during an accounting period. Wages and salaries include social contributions, income taxes and other payments payable by the employee, including those withheld by the employer and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities etc. on behalf of the employee. The most important form of wages and salaries is wages in cash (including withheld income taxes and social contributions). Wages in cash are composed of regular gross wages, standard extra allowances (for instance for hazardous work), bonuses, overtime pay, tips and compensation for costs related to employment (for instance refunds of fares to and from work). Bonuses include holiday pay, tantième, gratifications, profit shares and a thirteenth or fourteenth month. Wages in kind occur if an employee benefits from his or her job besides being paid wages. Examples of payment in kind are private use of a company car, free housing, free food, lower interest rates on mortgages, free or cheap use of the company's products or services, and company supplied or subsidized child care.
Employers' social contributions
Employers' social contributions are social contributions payable by employers to social security schemes or other employment-related social insurance schemes to secure social benefits for their employees. Employer's social contributions may be either actual or imputed. As set out by the ESA 2010, pay over periods in which no work is done due to illness or bad weather is registered as part of employers' social contributions.
Property income
Property income is the income receivable by the owner of a financial asset or a tangible non-produced asset in return for providing funds to, or putting the tangible non-produced asset at the deposal of, another institutional unit. Dividends are part of the property income.
Total
Interest
Interest is imputed to the period for which the underlying claim or debt exists. The actual interest payments or receipts are corrected for imputed bank services. Therefore there is a shift from actual interest payments and receipts to the production or the consumption of bank services. For producers of imputed bank services this means a decrease of the received interest and an increase of the paid interest with respect to the actual interest flows. For the consumers of imputed bank services this means an increase of received interest and a decrease of paid interest, compared with the actual interest flows.
Distributed income of corporations
Distributed income of corporations consists of dividends and withdrawals from income of quasi-corporations.
Dividends are a form of property income received by owners of shares to which they become entitled as a result of placing funds at the disposal of corporations. Dividends are recorded gross, before deduction of dividend tax. This applies also for the taxes on dividends to and from the rest of the world. Dividends are recorded at the moment they are made payable.
Quasi-corporations have no independent legal status. However, they have an economic and financial behavior that is different from that of their owners and similar to that of corporations. Therefore they are classified as non-financial or financial corporations.
Other investment income
Other investment income consists of:
- investment income attributable to insurance policy holders
- investment income payable on pension entitlements
- investment income attributable to collective investment fund shareholders
Rent
Rent is the income receivable by the owner of a natural resource for putting the natural resource at the disposal of another institutional unit.
There are two different types of resource rents: rent on land, and rent on subsoil resources. Resource rents on other natural resources such as radio spectra follow the same pattern. Examples are rents received by landowners from tenants and royalties for the permission to explore or to extract minerals or fossil fuels (received by owners of such deposits).
Social contributions and benefits
Social contributions and benefits are transfers to households, in cash or in kind, intended to relieve them from the financial burden of a number of risks or needs, made through collectively organized schemes, or outside such schemes by government units and NPISHs; they include payments from general government to producers which individually benefit households and which are made in the context of social risks or needs.
Social benefits are transfers to households, intended to relieve them from the financial burden of a number of risks or needs, such as sickness, invalidity, disability, old age, survivors and unemployment.
Total
Employers' imputed social contributions
Imputed social contributions represent the counterpart to the 'unfunded employee social benefits' (less any employees' social contributions) paid directly by employers to their (former) employees. It is necessary to introduce this imputation because the direct payments are recorded twice. Firstly they are recorded as employers' social contributions (part of the compensation of employees). Secondly they are recorded as social benefits.
Social benefits in cash
Social benefits other than social transfers in kind is made up of three sub-headings:
- social security benefits in cash
- other social insurance benefits
- social assistance benefits in cash.
Total
Social sec. non-pension benefits in cash
Social security non-pension benefits in cash.
Other social insurance benefits
Other private social insurance benefits are benefits paid by employers out of special reserves, which are segregated from their other reserves.
Social assistance benefits in cash
Social assistance benefits are payments of the central and local government to households, for which no quid pro quo by the beneficiary is expected. These benefits are based on a number of Dutch laws, such as the Act on Labor and Social Assistance.
Other current transfers
Other current transfers consist of non-life insurance premiums, non-life insurance claims, current transfers within general government, current international co-operation and miscellaneous current transfers.
Social transfers in kind
Social transfers in kind consist of individual goods and services provided for free or at prices that are not economically significant to individual households by government units and NPISHs, whether purchased on the market or produced as non-market output by government units or NPISHs. They are financed out of taxation, other government income or social security contributions, or out of donations and property income in the case of NPISHs.
Capital transfers
Capital transfers are payments for which no quid pro quo by the beneficiary is expected. They burden the wealth of the payer, or are meant to finance fixed capital formation or other long-term expenditures of the receiver. Capital transfers can be classified into capital taxes, investment grants, imputed capital transfers and other capital transfers.
Uses
Uses are transactions appear which deduces the economic value of sectors.
Total
Property income
Property income is the income receivable by the owner of a financial asset or a tangible non-produced asset in return for providing funds to, or putting the tangible non-produced asset at the deposal of, another institutional unit.
Current taxes on income and wealth
Current taxes on income and wealth of corporations consist of corporation tax and dividend tax. These taxes are based on the profits of corporations.
Current taxes on income and wealth of households include all taxes, which are periodically imposed on income and wealth, such as the income tax, the wage tax and the tax on net wealth of individuals. Non-periodical levies, such as inheritance tax are defined as capital transfers. Several types of taxes are simultaneously seen as taxes on production and imports when imposed on producers and as taxes on income and wealth when imposed on consumers. For instance, motor vehicle tax is a tax on production when it is imposed on company cars and it is a tax on income and wealth and imports when it is imposed on cars for private use.
The treatment of dividend tax results from the recording of dividends. Because dividends are recorded gross, i.e. before deduction of dividend tax, dividend tax is in all cases recorded at the receiving sector. The same applies for the dividend tax to and from the rest of the world.
Total
Current taxes on income
Tax levied on income. These include: corporate income tax, payroll tax, income tax, dividend tax, gambling tax and one-time revenue in connection with the liquidation of holding companies.
Other current taxes
Tax levied on capital (such as bank balances, savings and investments). The amount to be paid depends on the volume of the capital.
Social contributions and benefits
Social contributions and benefits are transfers to households, in cash or in kind, intended to relieve them from the financial burden of a number of risks or needs, made through collectively organized schemes, or outside such schemes by government units and NPISHs; they include payments from general government to producers which individually benefit households and which are made in the context of social risks or needs.
Social benefits are transfers to households, intended to relieve them from the financial burden of a number of risks or needs, such as sickness, invalidity, disability, old age, survivors and unemployment.
Total
Net social contributions
Social contributions include social security contributions, private social contributions (among which contributions to pension schemes) and imputed social contributions. Employers, employees, self-employed persons and non-active persons pay these contributions. Actually, the employers' part is paid directly to the insurers. However, in the national accounts, the employers' contributions are supposed to be part of primary income of households (i.e. the income from direct participation in the production process). Therefore, in first instance these contributions are treated as payments by employers to households as compensation of employees, who are deemed to pay them to the insurers in the income account.
Total
Employers' actual social contributions
Payments by employers, enforced by laws or (collective) labor agreement, in order to make social benefits possible.
Employers' imputed social contributions
Imputed social contributions represent the counterpart to the 'unfunded employee social benefits' (less any employees' social contributions) paid directly by employers to their (former) employees. It is necessary to introduce this imputation because the direct payments are recorded twice. Firstly they are recorded as employers' social contributions (part of the compensation of employees). Secondly they are recorded as social benefits.
Households' actual social contributions
Households' actual social contributions are social contributions payable on their own behalf by employees, self-employed or non-employed persons to social insurance schemes.
Households' social contrib. supplements
Households' social contribution supplements consist of the property income earned during the accounting period on the stock of pension and non-pension entitlements.
The social insur. scheme service charges
The social insurance scheme service charges are the service fees charged by the units administering the schemes. They appear here as part of the calculation for net social contributions; they are not redistributive transactions but part of output and consumption expenditure.
Other social insurance benefits
Other private social insurance benefits are benefits paid by employers out of special reserves, which are segregated from their other reserves.
Other current transfers
Other current transfers consist of non-life insurance premiums, non-life insurance claims, current transfers within general government, current international co-operation and miscellaneous current transfers.
Capital transfers
Capital transfers are payments for which no quid pro quo by the beneficiary is expected. They burden the wealth of the payer, or are meant to finance fixed capital formation or other long-term expenditures of the receiver. Capital transfers can be classified into capital taxes, investment grants, imputed capital transfers and other capital transfers.
Consumption of fixed capital
The decline in value of fixed assets owned, as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence.

For the estimation of the consumption of fixed capital the perpetual inventory method (PIM) is applied. The capital stock at the beginning of the year is brought to replacement value because of price changes. The fixed capital formation during the year is added to this capital stock. Next it is diminished with the value of capital goods discarded. This gives to value of capital stock at the end of the year. The consumption of fixed obtained by applying a depreciation percentage.
This method may differ considerably from the method used to calculate depreciation in business accounts, which is based on historical costs or fiscal life span.
Adjustm. change in pension entitlements
Since households are treated in the financial accounts as owners of the pension entitlements an adjustment item is necessary to ensure that any excess of contributions to pension schemes over pension benefits does not affect household savings. This adjustment is equal to the difference between net pension contributions (including imputed contributions) and pension benefits.