Investment climate; infrastructure international comparison 1990-2012

Investment climate; infrastructure international comparison 1990-2012

Countries Periods Efficiency distribution infrastructure (scale (1-10)) ICT infrastructure expenses ICT expenditure (% of GDP) ICT infrastructure expenses IT expenditure (% of GDP) ICT infrastructure expenses Telecommunication expenditure (% of GDP) Knowledge infrastructure Public R&D expenditure (% of GDP) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Total primary to higher education Total (USD corrected for purchasing power (PPP)) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Total primary to higher education Percentage financed publicly (%) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Total primary to higher education Percentage financed privately (%) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Total primary to higher education In % GDP per capita (%) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Primary education (USD corrected for purchasing power (PPP)) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Secondary education (USD corrected for purchasing power (PPP)) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Higher education Total (USD corrected for purchasing power (PPP)) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Higher education Percentage financed publicly (%) Knowledge infrastructure Educational expenditure per student Higher education Percentage financed privately (%)
Denmark 2000 8.8 7.0 . . . 8,302 96.0 4.0 29 7,074 7,726 11,981 97.6 2.4
Denmark 2005 9.0 6.2 3.3 2.9 0.68 10,108 92.3 7.7 30 8,513 9,407 14,959 96.7 3.3
Denmark 2010 9.0 5.2 2.9 2.3 0.85 . . . . . . . . .
Denmark 2011 9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Denmark 2012 9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finland 2000 8.8 6.9 . . 0.88 6,003 98.0 2.0 24 4,317 6,094 8,244 97.2 2.8
Finland 2005 8.6 6.3 3.3 3.0 0.89 7,711 97.8 2.2 25 5,557 7,324 12,285 96.1 3.9
Finland 2010 9.0 5.5 3.3 2.2 1.00 . . . . . . . . .
Finland 2011 9.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finland 2012 8.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Germany 2000 8.7 6.4 . . 0.77 6,849 81.1 18.9 26 4,198 6,826 10,898 91.8 8.2
Germany 2005 9.0 5.8 2.9 2.9 0.71 7,872 82.0 18.0 26 5,014 7,636 12,446 85.3 14.7
Germany 2010 9.0 5.2 2.6 2.6 . . . . . . . . . .
Germany 2011 9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Germany 2012 9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Japan 2000 7.6 5.2 . . 0.60 6,744 75.2 24.8 26 5,507 6,266 10,914 44.9 55.1
Japan 2005 7.2 7.7 3.5 4.2 0.55 8,378 68.6 31.4 28 6,744 7,908 12,326 33.7 66.3
Japan 2010 8.7 . . . 0.56 . . . . . . . . .
Japan 2011 8.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Japan 2012 8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Netherlands 2000 7.0 7.6 . . 0.62 6,125 90.3 9.7 22 4,325 5,912 11,934 77.4 22.6
The Netherlands 2005 7.8 6.4 3.3 3.1 0.74 8,147 91.4 8.6 23 6,266 7,741 13,883 77.6 22.4
The Netherlands 2010 8.5 5.3 2.8 2.5 . . . . . . . . . .
The Netherlands 2011 8.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Netherlands 2012 8.9 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweden 2000 7.7 8.5 . . . 7,524 97.0 3.0 29 6,336 6,339 15,097 88.1 11.9
Sweden 2005 7.6 7.4 3.8 3.6 0.87 9,156 97.0 3.0 28 7,532 8,198 15,946 88.2 11.8
Sweden 2010 8.8 4.8 2.9 1.9 . . . . . . . . . .
Sweden 2011 8.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sweden 2012 8.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
United Kingdom 2000 5.4 7.6 . . 0.56 5,592 85.2 14.8 21 3,877 5,991 9,657 67.7 32.3
United Kingdom 2005 6.6 6.7 3.6 3.1 0.57 7,741 80.0 20.0 25 6,361 7,167 13,506 66.9 33.1
United Kingdom 2010 8.3 6.9 3.8 3.1 0.57 . . . . . . . . .
United Kingdom 2011 8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
United Kingdom 2012 8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
United States 2000 8.0 6.7 . . 0.71 10,240 68.2 31.8 30 6,995 8,855 20,358 33.9 66.1
United States 2005 8.3 5.5 3.3 2.2 0.77 12,788 67.3 32.7 31 9,156 10,390 24,370 34.7 65.3
United States 2010 8.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
United States 2011 8.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
United States 2012 8.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table provides an international overview of the quality of infrastructure. Particularly figures on expenditure on ICT and knowledge infrastructure as well as figures on the efficiency of distribution infrastructure is given.

Note:
Comparable definitions are used to compare the figures presented internationally. The definitions sometimes differ from definitions used by Statistics Netherlands. The figures in this table could differ from Dutch figures presented elsewhere on the website of Statistics Netherlands.

Data available from 1990 up to 2012.

Status of the figures:
The external sources of these data frequently supply adjusted figures on preceding periods. These adjusted data are not mentioned as such in the table.

Changes as of 22 December 2017:
No, table is stopped.

When will new figures be published?
Not.

Description topics

Efficiency distribution infrastructure
The efficiency of the distribution infrastructure for goods and services (air, road, rail and waterways). This is based on the opinions of 4000 managers of big international enterprises who have lived and worked in
the country concerned. In 1991 and 1992 efficiency was expressed by the International Institute for Management Development on a scale of 1 (inefficient) to 100 (efficient).
As from 1993 efficiency has been expressed on a scale of 1 (inefficient) to 10 (efficient). In this table the scores for the years 1991 and 1992 were converted to scale 1 (inefficient) to 10 (efficient).

Source: World Competitiveness Yearbook, editions 1991-2012, International Institute for Management Development (IMD).

For the 1991-1995 surveys Belgium and Luxembourg were added together; as from 1997 the figures are separated. The figure for 1991 for Germany refers only to West Germany. The later years concern the reunified Germany.
ICT infrastructure expenses
ICT infrastructure is the whole of supplies necessary for data transport: cable networks, present ICT techniques for data transport and ICT equipment. In addition, services concerning electronic networks belong to ICT infrastructure, such as high-quality broadband connections which enable organisations to gather information, to communicate and to make transactions in a safe and efficient manner by electronic means.
ICT expenditure also belong to ICT infrastructure.
ICT expenditure
Investments, intermediate use and consumption of ICT goods (hardware and software) and ICT services.
Sources: Eurostat, Structural Indicators.
IT expenditure
Investments, intermediate use and consumption of information technology (IT). IT can be divided into goods (such as software and hardware) and services (such as computer services).
Source: Eurostat, Structural Indicators.
Telecommunication expenditure
Investments, intermediate use and consumption of communication technology (such as mobile telephone and internet).
Source: Eurostat, Structural Indicators.
Knowledge infrastructure
Knowledge infrastructure are the 'soft infrastructures', such as education and research infrastructures, aimed at the creation of educated people ('embodied knowledge') and new (scientific) insights ('disembodied knowledge').
Public R&D expenditure
Government financed gross domestic expenditure on Research & Development. Gross means that depreciations have not been deducted from the expenditure.
Characteristic of R&D is that the research is aimed at originality and renewal. R&D is the creative, systematic search for solutions for practical problems. Also the strategic and fundamental research, where obtaining background knowledge and increasing (purely) scientific knowledge stands first and not the striving towards direct economic advantage or solving problems, belongs to R&D. Furthermore, the development from ideas or prototypes to useful processes and production-ripe products is part of R&D.
The following activities are NOT counted as R&D:
- collecting and examining data, performing measurements or executing controls in a routine manner;
- the use or marginal improvement of existing methods or models for for example market research or social-demographic questions;
- education and training;
- activities concerning patents and licences;
- making purchased technology or sophisticated productions equipment operational;
- rewriting existing software and/or customising software already brought on the market;
- industrial design, unless ergonomic improvements are systematically sought.
The definition of R&D described above is in accordance with the internationally accepted standard for statistics concerning R&D such as described in the Frascati Manual (OECD, 2002).

Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators (MSTI).

Notes:
Czech Republic: 1991-1997: data are underestimated. 1991-1994 excluding defence expenditure.
Hungary: excluding defence expenditure.
Japan 1990-1995: data are overestimated.
Poland 1994: excluding defence expenditure.
South Korea: excluding R&D in social sciences, humanities and classical languages.
United States: excluding capital expenditure.
Educational expenditure per student
Expenditure on public and private education institutes, per pupil/student (in fulltime equivalents). It concerns both public (government) expenditure, and expenditure by private organisations or individuals.
Please note: it concerns both expenditure directly to educational institutions, and expenditure to individuals, who then pay (a part of) the money to an educational institution. In the case of a study grant to a student, the part of the grant used by the student to pay tuition, is counted in this indicator. The part of the grant used by the student to pay the rent is not counted in this indicator.

Source: OECD, Education at a glance.

Note: The OECD figure presented is the weighted average within the OECD countries (the sum of all expenditure in all countries has been divided by the sum of the number of pupils and students in all countries). When no data are available for one or some OECD countries the average has been calculated using the available countries.
2005: Canada, Hungary, Italy and Poland only public institutions.
2003 and 2004: Hungary, Italy and Poland only public institutions.
2002: Canada, Hungary and Italy only public institutions.
2000 and 2001: Hungary, Italy and Poland only public institutions.
United States only public and independent private institutions.
1999: Hungary, Italy and Poland only public institutions. United States only public and independent private institutions. The Netherlands only public and government dependent private institutions.
1998: Italy and Austria only public institutions. Belgium and the United Kingdom only public and government dependent private institutions.
1997: Hungary, Italy and Austria only public institutions. Belgium and the United Kingdom only public and government dependent private institutions.
The figure for Belgium is only referring to Flanders.
Total primary to higher education
ISCED97, levels 1 till 6.
ISCED97, level 1 is primary education.
ISCED97, level 2 is lower secondary education.
ISCED97, level 3 is upper secondary education.
ISCED97, level 4 is post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED97, level 5 is first stage of tertiary education.
ISCED97, level 6 is second stage of tertiary education.
ISCED97 stands for the International Standard Classification of Education of the year 1997.
Total
The expenditure is expressed in US dollars and corrected for differences in purchasing power between countries using Purchasing Power Parities (PPP).
Percentage financed publicly
Expenditure on primary to higher education, financed by one or more public parties.
Percentage financed privately
Expenditure on primary to higher education, financed by one or more private parties.
Private expenditure using subsidies from a public source (for example a study grant), is counted as privately financed.
In % GDP per capita
Total education expenses per student compared to per capita Gross Domestic Product.
Primary education
Expenditure on public and private educational institutes, per pupil in primary education (ISCED97 level 1: primary education).
The expenditure is expressed in US dollars and corrected for differences in purchasing power between countries using Purchasing Power Parities
(PPP).
Secondary education
Expenditure on public and private educational institutes, per pupil in secondary education (ISCED97 levels 2 and 3).
ISCED97, level 2 is lower secondary education.
ISCED97, level 3 is upper secondary education.
The expenditure is expressed in US dollars and corrected for differences in purchasing power between countries using Purchasing Power Parities
(PPP).
Higher education
Expenditure on public and private educational institutes, per pupil/student in higher education (ISCED97 levels 5 and 6).
ISCED97, level 5 is first stage of tertiary education.
ISCED97, level 6 is second stage of tertiary education.
Total
The expenditure is expressed in US dollars and corrected for differences in purchasing power between countries using Purchasing Power Parities (PPP).
Percentage financed publicly
Expenditure on public and private education institutes in higher education, financed by one or more public parties.
Percentage financed privately
Expenditure on public and private education institutes in higher education, financed by one or more private parties.
Private expenditure using subsidies from a public source (for example a study grant), is counted as privately financed.