What are the national accounts?

Building Statistics Netherlands

All macro-economic statistics are compiled within a coherent system: the national accounts. This system provides a quantitative description of the economic process in the Netherlands and the economic relations with the rest of the world. This page provides an overview of the principal macroeconomic indicators published by Statistics Netherlands (CBS). Below the tables and graphs are the relevant StatLine tables where additional topics and periods can be selected.

Within the national accounts, we distinguish supply and use tables and sector accounts. The supply and use tables describe production, consumption and value added by industry, broken down by product group. The sector accounts break down the various financial flows within the Dutch economy into the main sectors of households, corporations, government and foreign countries. Both systems describe the entire economy and are consistent with each other. The so-called labour accounts are considered a third main system. In addition to these three main systems, the national accounts also publish several satellite accounts. Most annual figures from the main systems are updated six months after the reporting period and usually published end of June.

Economic indicators

One of the key indicators in the national accounts is gross domestic product (GDP). GDP is a measure for the size of the economy. The volume change of GDP in a given reporting period is a measure of the economy’s growth (or contraction). Volume changes are changes in value adjusted for price fluctuations.

Gross domestic product (volume)
YearGDP (y-o-y % change)
* Provisional figures

GDP and many underlying indicators are also published quarterly. For the latest quarterly statistics, see the StatLine table ‘GDP, output and expenditures; changes, Quarterly National Accounts’.

Supply and use tables

Gross domestic product can be estimated using three different approaches: the production approach, the expenditure approach and the income approaches. These approaches are reflected in the supply and use tables. To begin with, the tables present a comprehensive overview of the production of goods and services: all value which is added by all residents of a country combined results in GDP. This value added equals the production value minus the value of goods and services that are consumed in the production process. The description of production is broken down by sector.

GDP based on output, value at current prices, 2022*
Output at basic prices 1920875
Intermediate consumption (-) 1061072
Gross value added
basic prices
 Agriculture, forestry and fishing14426
Mining and quarrying15630
Energy supply15489
Water supply and waste management5796
Trade, transport, hotels, catering178610
Information and communication42729
Financial institutions44018
Renting, buying, selling real estate70313
Business services127550
Government and care177780
Culture, recreation, other services17371
Taxes less subsidies on productsBalance98746
Gross domestic product 958549
*Provisional figures

StatLine: Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts 

In addition, the tables define the volume of consumption and types of consumption; the volume of investments; and the types of import and export. Also in this case, all domestic expenditure combined plus the export surplus add up to GDP.

GDP based on final expenditure, basic prices, 2022*
National expenditureTotal855096
Consumer expenditure651573
Gross fixed assets investments199868
Changes in inventories3655
Exports of goods and services898661
Imports of goods and services795208
Gross domestic product958549
*Provisional figures

StatLine: Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Using the income approach, GDP is composed of all wages, gross operating surplus and taxes on production and imports minus subsidies. Gross national income (GNI) can be calculated by adding all primary incomes received from abroad to GDP, deducting the primary incomes that are paid to foreign entities. The sector accounts present a much more extensive overview of the various concepts and breakdowns of income.

GDP based on income generation, value at current prices, 2022*
Remuneration of employeesTotal451678
Employers' social contributions100103
Taxes and subsidiesBalance91484
Taxes on production and imports112249
Gross operating surplusGross415387
Gross domestic product958549
*Provisional figures

StatLine: Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Sector accounts

The sector accounts describe the income distribution, financing and asset formation. For these accounts, the domestic economy is broken down into the main sectors of government, households including non-profit institutions serving households (NPISH), non-financial corporations (NFCs) and financial institutions. Another term for sector accounts is income and assets accounts.

Sector accounts; key figures 2022
Non-financial corporationsGross profit before tax €million346031
Profits of foreign subsidiaries€million100466
Government, consolidatedTax and social security revenue% of GDP38,1
Government debt (EMU)% of GDP50,1
Balance of the general government sector (EMU)% of GDP-0,1
Households incl. NPISHsDisposable income (net)% volume changes2,0
Consumption expenditure (gross)€million411073
Home mortgages€million813300

StatLine - Key figures by sector 

Labour accounts

The labour accounts are considered the third main system next to the supply and use tables and the sector accounts. The three main systems touch each other in important areas such as value added and remuneration. As a result, they are fully consistent with one another (through integration).

Key figures, labour market accounts, 2022
Employed personsx 1 0001015784031754
Jobsx 1 0001137788992478
Labour years x 1 000814567561389
Hours workedmillion hours14292113872906

StatLine: Labour accounts

Satellite accounts

Besides the main systems of SUT, sector accounts and labour accounts, several specific subjects are published within different modules. Below is an overview of the key indicators of these satellite accounts.

Environmental accounts 

The environmental aspects of production and consumption are included in the regular part of the national accounts only to a limited extent. Only expenditure to combat pollution is counted. The pollution itself is not expressed in monetary terms. In the environmental accounts, the environmental effects are quantified as far as possible, and environmental expenditure in the form of environmental taxes or sanitation services is particularised. To achieve a consistent statistical description of this relationship, the environmental accounts are aligned with the classifications and definitions of the national accounts.

Estimated CO2-emissions to air by the Dutch economy, 2022
million kgy-o-y % change
Total Dutch economy159121-8,4
Total private households27451-11,5
Energy, water companies45578-4,8
Transport companies234047,9
Agriculture, manufacturing, construction50848-14,7
Other services11453-13,0

The latest quarterly figures can be found here (Dutch only):
Raming CO2-emissie naar lucht; Nederlandse economie, Nationale rekeningen

Besides quarterly emission figures, the environmental accounts also publish annual statistics on  emissions to air, environmental taxes, water consumption and the size of the environmental sector. For a complete overview, see StatLine.

Regional accounts

In the regional accounts, the main macroeconomic variables are broken down by sector and region.

Economic growth by COROP region, 2021*
COROP Statcode
Oost-Groningen (CR)4.7
Delfzijl en omgeving (CR)3.3
Overig Groningen (CR)5.1
Noord-Friesland (CR)3.6
Zuidwest-Friesland (CR)4.1
Zuidoost-Friesland (CR)5.2
Noord-Drenthe (CR)3.5
Zuidoost-Drenthe (CR)4.4
Zuidwest-Drenthe (CR)3.9
Noord-Overijssel (CR)4.4
Zuidwest-Overijssel (CR)5.1
Twente (CR)5.4
Veluwe (CR)4.0
Achterhoek (CR)5.6
Arnhem/Nijmegen (CR)5.7
Zuidwest-Gelderland (CR)4.7
Utrecht (CR)4.4
Kop van Noord-Holland (CR)4.3
Alkmaar en omgeving (CR)4.1
IJmond (CR)7.9
Agglomeratie Haarlem (CR)4.7
Zaanstreek (CR)5.7
Groot-Amsterdam (CR)5.6
Het Gooi en Vechtstreek (CR)6.2
Agglomeratie Leiden en Bollenstreek (CR)4.8
Agglomeratie s-Gravenhage (CR)3.6
Delft en Westland (CR)4.3
Oost-Zuid-Holland (CR)4.4
Groot-Rijnmond (CR)5.0
Zuidoost-Zuid-Holland (CR)4.5
Zeeuwsch-Vlaanderen (CR)6.4
Overig Zeeland (CR)4.7
West-Noord-Brabant (CR)5.1
Midden-Noord-Brabant (CR)5.8
Noordoost-Noord-Brabant (CR)4.4
Zuidoost-Noord-Brabant (CR)7.7
Noord-Limburg (CR)6.3
Midden-Limburg (CR)4.9
Zuid-Limburg (CR)4.6
Flevoland (CR)4.4
* Provisional figures

StatLine: Regional key figures; national accounts

Growth accounts

The growth accounts show the contributions from the various production resources to growth of the value added or the gross output. In addition, the development of multifactor productivity can be derived from the growth accounts.

Contribution to value added
JaarContribution of labour (percentage point)Contribution of capital (percentage point)Contribution of multifactor productivity (percentage point)

StatLine: Growth accounts

Tourism accounts

The tourism accounts offer an integrated macroeconomic overview of the importance of tourism to the economy. The figures are consistent with the conceptual framework of the national accounts.

Importance of tourism in the Dutch economy
YearShare of tourism in value added (basic prices) (percentage point)Share of tourism in employment (labour volume) (percentage point)

StatLIne - Tourism; key indicators, National Accounts

The satellite accounts’ tables can be found here: StatLine - Datasets by themes (cbs.nl)