A small number of very big enterprises dominates R&D in the Netherlands. Some of these enterprises have their headquarters in the country, some have moved out, some have always been foreign-based. We have already seen many mergers and take-overs, and we expect to see more.In the last two decades or so, the organisation of R&D within the big enterprises in the manufacturing industry has changed. Instead of large centralized laboratories we now see more smaller decentralized R&D labs. Apart from the big enterprises engaged in R&D, we also see a large number of small and medium enterprises, focusing on R&D as their main activity.