A small number of very big enterprises dominates research and development in the Netherlands. Some of these enterprises have their headquarters in the country, some have moved out, some have always been foreign-based. We have already seen many mergers and take-overs, and we expect to see more.In the last two decades or so, the organisation of R&D within the big enterprises in the manufacturing industry has changed. Instead of large centralized laboratories we now see more smaller decentralized R&D labs. Apart from the big enterprises engaged in R&D, we also see a large number of small and medium enterprises, focusing on R&D as their main activity.