CO2 emissions in 2017 the same as in 1990

In 2017, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) amounted to 163 billion kilograms (kg) in the Netherlands. This is just as high as more than a quarter of a century ago, while the sectors causing these emissions have grown in scale. Emissions per square metre were the highest in the municipalities of Velsen, Geertruidenberg and Rotterdam. This is reported by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) in collaboration with the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the Netherlands Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PTRT) on the basis of provisional figures.

Greenhouse gas emissions (bn CO2 equivalents)
 Total greenhouse gasesCarbon dioxideOther (methane, nitrous oxide and F-gases)
199022116358
199122917257
199223017158
199323017159
199423117259
199523117458
199624218359
199723517659
199823517758
199922117150
200021917247
200122017743
200221817742
200321918039
200422018238
200521417837
200620917336
200720817335
200820717631
200920117031
201021318231
201119916930
201219516529
201319516530
201418715829
201519516530
201619516630
201719316329

Carbon dioxide the largest greenhouse gas produced by human activity. The share of CO2 in total greenhouse gas emissions rose from 74 percent in 1990 to 85 percent in 2017. Last year’s CO2 emission levels equalled those of 1990. Emissions of other greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide and F-gases) have been reduced by half relative to 1990. In 2017, total emissions expressed in CO2 equivalents were 13 percent lower than in 1990, the reference year which the emission reduction targets are based on.

Higher efficiency at power stations

In 2017, energy companies emitted 22 percent (9 billion kg) more CO2 than in 1990, while electricity production was up by 54 percent. Partly as a result of higher energy efficiency at power plants, CO2 emissions increased less rapidly than production. In addition, more and more electricity is generated from wind.

Last year, CO2 emissions by the chemical, petroleum and basic metal industries were 14 percent (6 billion kg) lower than in 1990, while their production was roughly 50 percent higher. The decrease in CO2 emissions is partly related to energy-saving measures taken by these companies.

Less CO2 per square km

In 2017, road traffic emitted 12 percent (3 billion kg) more CO2 than in 1990. Motor vehicles drove 42 percent more kilometres on Dutch motorways last year. In other words, fewer fossil fuels were used for each kilometre travelled. Over the past decade in particular, passenger cars have become more fuel-efficient. Car manufacturers have had to comply with increasingly strict European emission standards. Furthermore, tax benefits have encouraged the purchase of fuel-efficient cars.

Lower consumption of natural gas

Due to better insulation and the use of high-efficiency boilers, heating homes and commercial buildings requires less energy than previously. Last year, the built environment sector emitted 17 percent (5 billion kg) less CO2 than in 1990, despite the increase in the number of homes from 5.8 to 7.7 million (32 percent).

Carbon dioxide emissions by sector (bn kg)
 20171990
Energy companies48.539.8
Large industries35.341.1
Road transport29.726.6
Built environment24.129.1
Other16.817.7
Agriculture8.98.8

Highest CO2 emissions in Velsen

There are substantial regional differences in annual CO2 emission levels in the Netherlands; municipalities with power plants and large industrial sites stand out in this respect. The highest CO2 emissions per square metre are in the municipality of Velsen (198 kg per square metre in 2016). This is where steel manufacturer Tata Steel is located, as well as a power plant that utilises residual gases from blast furnaces. The municipality of Geertruidenberg, where the Amercentrale power plant is located, is in second place (125 kg per square metre). The refineries, chemical industry and power plants in the Maasvlakte area put Rotterdam in third place (108 kg per square metre).

The top ten of municipalities with the highest CO2 emissions per square metre is completed by Diemen (79 kg, Sittard-Geleen (66 kg), Amsterdam (39 kg), Moerdijk (30 kg), Terneuzen (26 kg), Eemsmond (22 kg) and Utrecht (21 kg). The average CO2 emission level in the Netherlands is 4.4 kg per square metre.

Carbon dioxide emissions in 2016 (kg per square metre)
 CO2 emissions in 2016 (kg per m2)
Velsen198.4
Geertruidenberg124.5
Rotterdam108.1
Diemen78.7
Sittard-Geleen66
Amsterdam38.9
Moerdijk30.4
Terneuzen25.7
Eemsmond22
Utrecht (gemeente)21.5
Leiden20.7
Maastricht19.4
Duiven19.3
Delft16.2
's-Gravenhage (gemeente)15.7
Schiedam15.2
Alkmaar14.7
Westland14.4
Rijswijk (ZH.)12.5
Haarlem11.9
Gouda11.8
Beuningen11.5
Capelle aan den IJssel11.2
Papendrecht11.1
Gorinchem10.9
Alblasserdam10.8
Eindhoven10.8
Zwijndrecht10.3
Nieuwegein10.2
Hengelo (O.)10.2
Nijmegen10.1
Enschede10.1
Dordrecht10
Ridderkerk10
Lansingerland9.9
Zoetermeer9.8
Groningen (gemeente)9.8
Delfzijl9.5
Barendrecht9.4
Amersfoort9.3
Borsele8.9
Oegstgeest8.8
Haarlemmermeer8.7
Veenendaal8.6
Beverwijk8.4
Roermond8.1
Heerlen8
Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht7.9
Leidschendam-Voorburg7.6
Zaanstad7.6
Bergen op Zoom7.5
Sliedrecht7.5
Heemstede7.3
Leiderdorp7.2
Kerkrade7.1
Krimpen aan den IJssel7.1
Arnhem7.1
Vlaardingen7.1
Son en Breugel7.1
Tilburg6.9
Amstelveen6.8
Helmond6.8
Dongen6.8
Breda6.7
Renkum6.7
Pijnacker-Nootdorp6.7
Tiel6.6
Maassluis6.5
Hilversum6.4
Roosendaal6.3
Uithoorn6.3
's-Hertogenbosch6.2
Ouder-Amstel6.1
Laren (NH.)6.1
Brunssum6
Waddinxveen5.9
Hardinxveld-Giessendam5.9
Cuijk5.6
Vlissingen5.4
Beek (L.)5.3
Oldenzaal5.2
Veldhoven5.1
Midden-Delfland5.1
Zoeterwoude5.1
Almelo5
Landgraaf5
Vianen5
Geldrop-Mierlo5
Venlo5
Leerdam5
Huizen5
Purmerend5
Katwijk4.9
Zeist4.9
Hattem4.8
Heerhugowaard4.8
Zuidplas4.7
Haarlemmerliede en Spaarnwoude4.7
Best4.7
Zutphen4.5
Voorschoten4.5
Etten-Leur4.5
Uitgeest4.4
Gooise Meren4.4
Harderwijk4.4
Aalsmeer4.4
Zwolle4.4
Brummen4.2
Oosterhout4.2
Stichtse Vecht4
IJsselstein4
Woerden4
Hillegom4
Teylingen4
Neder-Betuwe3.9
Middelburg (Z.)3.9
Heiloo3.9
Lingewaard3.8
Westervoort3.8
Baarn3.8
Albrandswaard3.7
Stein (L.)3.7
Soest3.6
Weert3.6
Lisse3.5
Borne3.5
Vught3.5
Nuenen, Gerwen en Nederwetten3.5
Waalwijk3.4
Zaltbommel3.4
Doetinchem3.3
Blaricum3.3
Hoorn3.3
Heemskerk3.3
Oud-Beijerland3.3
Waalre3.3
Wageningen3.2
Brielle3.2
De Bilt3.2
Deventer3.2
Stede Broec3.1
Uden3.1
Oostzaan3.1
Meerssen3.1
Heusden3
Bunnik3
Meppel3
Culemborg3
Langedijk3
Assen3
Maasdriel3
Asten2.9
Boxtel2.9
Laarbeek2.9
Kapelle2.9
Nijkerk2.9
Houten2.9
Peel en Maas2.9
Hellevoetsluis2.9
Meierijstad2.9
Overbetuwe2.9
Lingewaal2.8
Veendam2.8
Barneveld2.8
Schinnen2.8
Bodegraven-Reeuwijk2.8
Zevenaar2.7
Weesp2.7
Geldermalsen2.7
Eemnes2.7
Binnenmaas2.6
Scherpenzeel2.6
Bernheze2.6
Apeldoorn2.5
Alphen aan den Rijn2.5
Someren2.5
Neerijnen2.5
Kaag en Braassem2.5
Hoogeveen2.5
Doesburg2.5
Maasgouw2.4
Midden-Drenthe2.4
Oss2.4
Wijchen2.4
Druten2.4
Heerde2.4
Lelystad2.4
Utrechtse Heuvelrug2.3
Noordwijkerhout2.3
Emmen2.3
Beesel2.3
Rijssen-Holten2.2
Simpelveld2.2
Heumen2.2
Venray2.2
Boxmeer2.2
Bunschoten2.1
Almere2.1
Leeuwarden2.1
Nuth2.1
Echt-Susteren2.1
Leusden2.1
Gilze en Rijen2.1
Steenbergen2.1
Woudenberg2.1
Ede2.1
Renswoude2
Wormerland2
De Ronde Venen2
Berg en Dal2
Horst aan de Maas2
Appingedam2
Ermelo2
Leek2
Castricum2
Putten2
Smallingerland2
Valkenswaard1.9
Wassenaar1.9
Deurne1.9
Oisterwijk1.9
Nissewaard1.9
Rucphen1.9
Rheden1.9
Valkenburg aan de Geul1.9
Elburg1.9
Midden-Groningen1.8
Bedum1.8
Leudal1.8
Goes1.8
Halderberge1.8
Cranendonck1.8
Eijsden-Margraten1.8
Oirschot1.8
Loon op Zand1.8
Sint-Michielsgestel1.7
Koggenland1.7
Rhenen1.7
Werkendam1.7
Zederik1.7
Pekela1.7
Nederweert1.7
Reimerswaal1.7
Boekel1.7
Haren1.7
Voerendaal1.6
Noordwijk1.6
Gennep1.6
Marum1.6
Goirle1.6
Eersel1.6
Kampen1.6
Ten Boer1.6
Bloemendaal1.5
Beemster1.5
Bladel1.5
Montferland1.5
Oost Gelre1.5
Drimmelen1.5
Woudrichem1.5
Wierden1.5
Landerd1.5
West Maas en Waal1.5
Edam-Volendam1.4
Woensdrecht1.4
Heerenveen1.4
Oldebroek1.4
Voorst1.4
Montfoort1.4
Mook en Middelaar1.4
Wijk bij Duurstede1.4
Grave1.4
Giessenlanden1.4
Oude IJsselstreek1.3
Nieuwkoop1.3
Krimpenerwaard1.3
Nunspeet1.2
Roerdalen1.2
Gemert-Bakel1.2
Cromstrijen1.2
Opmeer1.2
Haaren1.2
Epe1.2
Tytsjerksteradiel1.2
Achtkarspelen1.2
Aalten1.1
Molenwaard1.1
Vaals1.1
Twenterand1.1
Mill en Sint Hubert1.1
Landsmeer1.1
Schagen1.1
Wijdemeren1.1
Waadhoeke1.1
Hardenberg1.1
Strijen1.1
Onderbanken1.1
Staphorst1.1
Den Helder1.1
Hof van Twente1.1
Westvoorne1.1
Stadskanaal1.1
Lochem1.1
Zwartewaterland1.1
Lopik1
Zundert1
Heeze-Leende1
Berkelland1
Raalte1
Hellendoorn1
Drechterland1
Losser1
Tynaarlo1
Medemblik1
Winterswijk1
Oldambt1
Bergen (L.)1
Aalburg0.9
Bergeijk0.9
Haaksbergen0.9
Sint Anthonis0.9
Zandvoort0.9
Bronckhorst0.9
Oudewater0.9
Westerwolde0.8
Buren0.8
Bergen (NH.)0.8
Reusel-De Mierden0.8
Harlingen0.8
Aa en Hunze0.8
Dalfsen0.8
Gulpen-Wittem0.8
Dantumadiel0.8
Hulst0.8
Tubbergen0.8
Dinkelland0.8
Coevorden0.8
De Wolden0.8
Hilvarenbeek0.8
Noordoostpolder0.7
Opsterland0.7
Grootegast0.7
Ommen0.7
Alphen-Chaam0.7
Olst-Wijhe0.7
Dronten0.7
Waterland0.7
Loppersum0.7
Noordenveld0.7
Steenwijkerland0.6
Tholen0.6
Zuidhorn0.6
Goeree-Overflakkee0.6
De Fryske Marren0.6
Weststellingwerf0.6
Ooststellingwerf0.6
Urk0.6
Borger-Odoorn0.6
Baarle-Nassau0.6
Zeewolde0.5
Súdwest-Fryslân0.5
Hollands Kroon0.5
Winsum0.5
Sluis0.5
Enkhuizen0.4
Veere0.4
Schouwen-Duiveland0.4
Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland0.4
Westerveld0.4
Ferwerderadiel0.4
Dongeradeel0.4
Noord-Beveland0.4
Korendijk0.3
Rozendaal0.2
De Marne0.2
Texel0.2
Ameland0.1
Terschelling0
Schiermonnikoog0
Vlieland0

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