(English subtitles available)
In the academic year 2006/’07, the respective shares of girls taking the Nature and Technology profile at HAVO (senior general secondary) level and VWO (pre-university secondary) level were 2 and 6 percent. This profile includes mathematics B, physics and chemistry as compulsory subjects. By 2017/’18, these shares had gone up to 10 and 28 percent respectively. The upward trend started in the academic year 2007/’08, when the so-called new upper secondary phase was introduced. This made it easier to combine the profiles Nature and Technology and Science and Health in a ‘dual subject cluster’. Girls at VWO level in particular opted for this dual subject cluster after the new upper secondary phase was introduced. Nature and Technology is still popular mainly among boys. More boys have opted for this profile as well over the past ten years, but the gender gap has narrowed at the same time.
Technology still least popular among female VMBO level students
Technology is the least popular discipline sector among girls at VMBO schools. In the academic year 2017/’18, the Technology sector was chosen by 4 percent of girls and 33 percent of boys in Years 3 and 4 of VMBO pathways ‘basic vocational’, ‘advanced vocational’ and ‘combined’. Between academic years 2011/’12 and 2016/’17, the share of girls taking Technology went up from 3 to 4 percent. The percentage share of boys attending this sector has been declining since 2003/’04. As of 2007/’08, VMBO has inter-sectoral programmes, which have become increasingly popular at the expense of other sectors. These programmes often include technology-related subjects.
1 in 10 female MBO students obtain diploma in technology
As of academic year 2010/’11, a growing number of girls attending MBO (secondary vocational training) obtain technical qualifications. In that year, 6 percent of female MBO students were enrolled in technology-based education, rising to 11 percent in 2015/’16. The share subsequently dropped to 10 percent in the following academic year. Over the same period, the share of male MBO students instead declined from 46 percent (2010/’11) to 41 percent (2016/’17). Generally speaking, girls obtain technical diplomas in other fields compared to boys, for example in the field of clothing and footwear technology, design and audiovisual production.
Few female students choose Engineering, Industry and Construction Engineering at university level
Despite the fact that more girls (and boys) at secondary HAVO and VWO level are choosing a technical profile, the trend is hardly noticeable in higher education (universities and universities of applied sciences). The share of women in higher education obtaining a diploma in Engineering, Industry or Construction Engineering increased from 2 percent in 2006/’07 to 3 percent in 2015/’16. Among male students, the share was 15 percent in the latter academic year. Examples of courses which are more popular among female rather than male students include garment technology, textile engineering, urban design and biotechnology.