In this study, the term asylum seekers refers to all people who receive reception and housing provided by the Dutch ‘Central Agency for the Reception of Asylum Seekers’ (COA). This includes people whose asylum application is in progress as well as people who have already received an asylum permit but are still housed at a COA reception centre. The latter are formally no longer defined as asylum seekers: their asylum application has been granted. However, they are still counted as asylum seekers as long as they reside with COA. In case following family members are also housed by COA these will then also be counted as asylum seekers.