The second generation, born in the Netherlands, is starting to become the face of the population with a non-western background in Dutch society. Nearly half of the people from the four major non-western migrant groups (Turks, Moroccans, Surinamese and Antilleans) is born in the Netherlands. Statistics Netherlands presents several key statistical facts and developments on their integration in the annual report on integration (Jaarrapport Integration 2010) published today.
The second generation, born in the Netherlands, is performing better and better in education and their socioeconomic position is more positive than that of the first generation non-westerners. They also consider themselves Dutch far more often than the first generation. There is still a disadvantage in education and prospects on the job market compared to the native Dutch population. Their health situation is fragile, and also, they are over-represented in crime.
More young non-westerners in higher education
The gap in education is closing between young non-western and native Dutch people. They are increasingly entering the higher levels of secondary education and their participation in higher education has also been increasing faster than that of the young native Dutch population. Particularly among women.
Second generation has better prospects on the job market
There is less of a gap between the second generation and the native Dutch population on the job market than the first generation had. Taking the age differences into account the second generation has better job opportunities, a higher average income and is more economically independent than the first generation. Due to the economic crisis in 2009 the employment gap between young non-western and young native Dutch people widened (20 versus 9 percent unemployment).
Second generation more focused on the Netherlands
Fewer people of the second generation bring a partner from the country of origin than the first generation. Mothers of the non-western second generation have their first child at roughly the same age as native Dutch mothers. Mothers of the first generation are a few years younger on average. The most visible fact is that the second generation considers itself Dutch twice as often as the first generation.
Young non-westerners in less good health and facing higher crime rate
The health of the young non-western population is generally not as good as that of young native Dutch people. Young non-westerners are overrepresented in crime. Over half of Moroccan boys, mostly of the second generation, become a police suspect in their youth. This is somewhat less among boys from the other groups of non-western origin but still two to three times as often as native Dutch boys.
More in the annual integration report of 2010:
Commitment to Dutch language and culture improves job opportunities
Non-western children have better language and arithmetic skills when Dutch is spoken at home. Second generation children with one Dutch parent have less of a disadvantage on the job market than second generation children whose parents both came from another country.
No brain drain: Highly educated second generation stays in the Netherlands more often
The emigration of second generation non-westerners has been declining for years. Those who emigrate often live on benefits and have less of an education than those who stay in the Netherlands.
Neighbourhoods: ‘white flight’ diminishing, ‘black flight’ increasing slightly
A quarter of the Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese population lives in a neighbourhood where over 50 percent of the population is non-western. These neighbourhoods have a weak socioeconomic position. The neighbourhoods have become less ‘colourful’ in recent years as the white flight diminished and immigration decreased. Non-westerners tend to move out of these immigrant dominated neighbourhoods rather than move in (‘black flight’).
Integration of Iranian refugees going well, integration of Somalis lags behind
People from Iran and Afghanistan perform well in education. Groups of refugees are narrowing the gap on he job market but the labour participation of Somalians lags behind. Between 1999 and 2007 it is the Somalis who left the Netherlands most. Many Iranians are self-employed. People from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran are less often crime suspects than the average for non-westerners, Somalis more often.
Recent Eastern European labour migrants leave the Netherlands more
The flow of immigrants from Poland, Romania and Bulgaria increased when these countries joined the EU. During the economic crisis the flow stabilised. Recent Eastern European labour migrants leave the Netherlands much more than earlier migrants, who mostly came to the Netherlands for family reunification.