Nearly 13 percent of pupils who took the final primary education test (Cito test) in 2005 continue their education at a higher level in the so-called brugklas (which aims to bridge the gap between primary and secondary education) than the result of the Cito test allows. Over 4 percent of pupils continue their education at a lower level than the Cito test suggests. The choice for a higher or lower level affects the moving up or down of pupils after the brugklas: pupils who disregard the Cito advice more often switch to a different level in the second year than pupils who stick to the Cito advice.
Girls opt for higher level
As many boys as girls disregard the Cito advice, but girls more often opt for a higher brugklas level. Boys more often opt for a lower brugklas level.
Native Dutch pupils with havo advice more often opt for vmbo level
Native Dutch pupils with havo advice more often decide to go to the vmbo than pupils with a non-western background with havo Cito advice. On the other hand, native Dutch pupils who were advised to embark on the vocational vmbo programme slightly more often than non-western background pupils opt for a higher brugklas level.
Brugklas level compared to Cito advice by ethnic background, 2005/'06
Children from wealthy families more often opt for higher brugklas level
Children from high income families typically opt for a higher brugklas level than the Cito score suggests. The largest differences are found among pupils who were advised to take the vocational vmbo track. Over one third of children from wealthy families and only one fifth of children from less wealthy families opt for a higher brugklas level against the Cito advice.
Brugklas level compared to Cito advice by household income, 2005/'06
Moving up after option for lower brugklas level
In the second year of secondary education, the vast majority of pupils attend education at the same level they started in the brugklas. Only 3 percent of pupils advanced to a higher level after the first year; another 3 percent moved back to a lower level.
Moving up and moving down from brugklas to second year, 2006/'07*
Pupils disregarding the Cito advice, more often switch to another level after the first year; 13 percent of those who choose to attend education at a lower level in fact advance to a higher level in the second year. Altogether, 8 percent of pupils who opted for a higher brugklas level move back to a lower in the second year.
Lieke Stroucken (CBS), Dick Takkenberg (CBS), Anton Béguin (Cito)