In 2003 the costs of nature and landscape conservation and management totalled 974 million euro, a decrease by 3 percent on 2001, but distinctly more than in 1999 (+30 percent). The costs of nature and landscape conservation and management over 2002 were not analysed.
Costs of nature and landscape management and conservation by type of activity
Far less money available for land acquisition
In 2003 a total amount of 135 million euro was earmarked for land acquisition versus 228 million euro in 2001. This substantial decline is the result of a decree issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food quality to stop all land acquisition activities in the period running from the end of 2002 into the third quarter of 2003. Land bought in this period was mainly intended for the realisation of the Ecological Main Structure.
Costs of landscape design and management stable
Apart from costs of land acquisition, the costs of nature and landscape conservation also cover costs of landscape and nature design and management, information, education and research and operating costs. Costs of design and management hardly changed in 2003, compared to 2001 and totalled 370 million euro; 171 million euro was spent on information, education and research in 2003, as against 142 million in 2001. Operating costs also rose from 255 million euro in 2001 to 299 million euro in 2003.
Costs of nature and landscape management and conservation
More involvement public sector, modest proceeds
A continually increasing part of the costs of nature and landscape is made by public sector organisations, like the Dutch National Forest Service and the Rural Area Service; 52 percent in 1999, more than 57 percent in 2003. Nature conservation organisations, land owners and farmers account for the remainder.
In 2003 a small proportion of the costs (close to 6 percent) of nature and landscape conservation and protection were covered by revenue sources, like rent and proceeds from timber and cattle. The cost-proceeds ratio remained almost unchanged in the period 1999-2003.
Financing sources nature and landscape
Sources of financing
Dutch government makes by far the largest contribution (nearly 78 percent) to the costs of nature and landscape projects. Households contribute 13 percent, the private sector accounts for 9 percent. The contribution made by Dutch households is fairly consistent and comprises membership fees, donations, legacies and contributions made by national lotteries.
Cor Graveland and Ronald van der Mark