Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Approaches of domestic product (GDP); National Accounts

Periods GDP from the output Value at current prices Intermediate consumption (-) (million euros) GDP from the output Value at prices of 2015 Intermediate consumption (-) (million euros) GDP from the output Volume changes on previous year Intermediate consumption (-) (%) GDP from the output Price indices Intermediate consumption (-) (2015 =100) GDP from the generation of income Value at current prices Gross operating surplus / mixed income Consumption of fixed capital (-) (million euros) GDP from the generation of income Value at prices of 2015 Gross operating surplus / mixed income Consumption of fixed capital (-) (million euros) GDP from the generation of income Volume changes on previous year Gross operating surplus / mixed income Consumption of fixed capital (-) (%) GDP from the generation of income Price indices Gross operating surplus / mixed income Consumption of fixed capital (-) (2015 =100) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Total (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Households and NPISHs (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at current prices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at prices of 2015 National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Total (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at prices of 2015 National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Households and NPISHs (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Value at prices of 2015 National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (million euros) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Total (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Households and NPISHs (%) GDP from the final expenditure Volume changes on previous year National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (%) GDP from the final expenditure Price indices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Total (2015 =100) GDP from the final expenditure Price indices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure Households and NPISHs (2015 =100) GDP from the final expenditure Price indices National final expenditure Final consumption expenditure General government (2015 =100)
2020* 797,918 772,003 -4.9 103.4 139,285 128,290 1.9 108.6 542,858 335,225 207,633 495,269 308,913 186,185 -3.9 -6.6 1.0 109.6 108.5 111.5
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Table description


This table presents annual data on the output components, the final expenditure categories and the income components of gross domestic product of the Netherlands. In the national accounts gross domestic product is approached from three points of view: from the output, from the generation of income and from the final expenditure. Gross domestic product is a main macroeconomic indicator. The volume change of gross domestic product is a measure for the economic growth of a country.

Data available from: 1995.

Status of the figures:
Data from 1995 up to and including 2019 are final. Data of 2020 are provisional.

Changes as of June 24th 2021:
Data of 2020 have been added to this table.

When will new figures be published?
Provisional data are published 6 months after the end of the reporting year. Final data are released 18 months after the end of the reporting year.

Description topics

GDP from the output
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called production approach. In this approach GDP equals the sum of value added over all branches (including non-commercial ones). Value added is thereby registered at basic prices. GDP at market prices is obtained by adding taxes less subsidies on production and the difference between imputed and paid VAT. The included taxes and subsidies apply both to produced and imported goods and services. Examples of these are VAT and taxes on import.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
Intermediate consumption (-)
Goods and services used as input in a production process, with the exception of capital goods. Intermediate consumption consists of goods reshaped into other goods or consumed entirely in the course of the production process (by definition, this holds for all hired services). According to international standards an acquired good or hired service is classified as a fixed asset rather than intermediate consumption when it lasts over one year in a production process. Goods and services that are part of intermediate consumption are valued at market prices at the time they were used.
Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
Intermediate consumption (-)
Goods and services used as input in a production process, with the exception of capital goods. Intermediate consumption consists of goods reshaped into other goods or consumed entirely in the course of the production process (by definition, this holds for all hired services). According to international standards an acquired good or hired service is classified as a fixed asset rather than intermediate consumption when it lasts over one year in a production process. Goods and services that are part of intermediate consumption are valued at market prices at the time they were used.
Volume changes on previous year
Volume changes on previous year
The weighted average of the changes in the quantity and quality of the components of a certain goods or service transaction or balancing item, annual percentage changes.
Intermediate consumption (-)
Goods and services used as input in a production process, with the exception of capital goods. Intermediate consumption consists of goods reshaped into other goods or consumed entirely in the course of the production process (by definition, this holds for all hired services). According to international standards an acquired good or hired service is classified as a fixed asset rather than intermediate consumption when it lasts over one year in a production process. Goods and services that are part of intermediate consumption are valued at market prices at the time they were used.
Price indices
The weighted average of the price changes of the components of a certain variable. Deflators relative to the reference year 2015.
Intermediate consumption (-)
Goods and services used as input in a production process, with the exception of capital goods. Intermediate consumption consists of goods reshaped into other goods or consumed entirely in the course of the production process (by definition, this holds for all hired services). According to international standards an acquired good or hired service is classified as a fixed asset rather than intermediate consumption when it lasts over one year in a production process. Goods and services that are part of intermediate consumption are valued at market prices at the time they were used.
GDP from the generation of income
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called income approach. In this approach the components are the incomes generated from production activities: compensation of employees and operating surplus / mixed income. To remain consistent with GDP at market prices, taxes less subsidies on production and imports (not necessarily product-related) are added.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
Gross operating surplus / mixed income
The surplus that remains after compensation of employees and taxes less subsidies on production and imports have been subtracted from the sum of value added at basic prices. For the self-employed (who are part of the sector households) the surplus is called mixed income, it is partly a reward for their entrepreneurship compensation for their labour.

In the system of national accounts gross means that consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) has not been subtracted. When it has, net is used. Depreciation must be paid for from the gross operating surplus.

Consumption of fixed capital (-)
The decline in value of fixed assets owned, as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence.

For the estimation of the consumption of fixed capital the perpetual inventory method (PIM) is applied. The capital stock at the beginning of the year is brought to replacement value because of price changes. The fixed capital formation during the year is added to this capital stock. Next it is diminished with the value of capital goods discarded. This gives to value of capital stock at the end of the year. The consumption of fixed obtained by applying a depreciation percentage.
This method may differ considerably from the method used to calculate depreciation in business accounts, which is based on historical costs or fiscal life span.

Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
Gross operating surplus / mixed income
The surplus that remains after compensation of employees and taxes less subsidies on production and imports have been subtracted from the sum of value added at basic prices. For the self-employed (who are part of the sector households) the surplus is called mixed income, it is partly a reward for their entrepreneurship compensation for their labour.

In the system of national accounts gross means that consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) has not been subtracted. When it has, net is used. Depreciation must be paid for from the gross operating surplus.

Consumption of fixed capital (-)
The decline in value of fixed assets owned, as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence.

For the estimation of the consumption of fixed capital the perpetual inventory method (PIM) is applied. The capital stock at the beginning of the year is brought to replacement value because of price changes. The fixed capital formation during the year is added to this capital stock. Next it is diminished with the value of capital goods discarded. This gives to value of capital stock at the end of the year. The consumption of fixed obtained by applying a depreciation percentage.
This method may differ considerably from the method used to calculate depreciation in business accounts, which is based on historical costs or fiscal life span.
Volume changes on previous year
The weighted average of the changes in the quantity and quality of the components of a certain goods or service transaction or balancing item, annual percentage changes.
Gross operating surplus / mixed income
The surplus that remains after compensation of employees and taxes less subsidies on production and imports have been subtracted from the sum of value added at basic prices. For the self-employed (who are part of the sector households) the surplus is called mixed income, it is partly a reward for their entrepreneurship compensation for their labour.

In the system of national accounts gross means that consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) has not been subtracted. When it has, net is used. Depreciation must be paid for from the gross operating surplus.

Consumption of fixed capital (-)
The decline in value of fixed assets owned, as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence.

For the estimation of the consumption of fixed capital the perpetual inventory method (PIM) is applied. The capital stock at the beginning of the year is brought to replacement value because of price changes. The fixed capital formation during the year is added to this capital stock. Next it is diminished with the value of capital goods discarded. This gives to value of capital stock at the end of the year. The consumption of fixed obtained by applying a depreciation percentage.
This method may differ considerably from the method used to calculate depreciation in business accounts, which is based on historical costs or fiscal life span.
Price indices
The weighted average of the price changes of the components of a certain variable. Deflators relative to the reference year 2015.
Gross operating surplus / mixed income
The surplus that remains after compensation of employees and taxes less subsidies on production and imports have been subtracted from the sum of value added at basic prices. For the self-employed (who are part of the sector households) the surplus is called mixed income, it is partly a reward for their entrepreneurship compensation for their labour.

In the system of national accounts gross means that consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) has not been subtracted. When it has, net is used. Depreciation must be paid for from the gross operating surplus.
Consumption of fixed capital (-)
The decline in value of fixed assets owned, as a result of normal wear and tear and obsolescence.

For the estimation of the consumption of fixed capital the perpetual inventory method (PIM) is applied. The capital stock at the beginning of the year is brought to replacement value because of price changes. The fixed capital formation during the year is added to this capital stock. Next it is diminished with the value of capital goods discarded. This gives to value of capital stock at the end of the year. The consumption of fixed obtained by applying a depreciation percentage.
This method may differ considerably from the method used to calculate depreciation in business accounts, which is based on historical costs or fiscal life span.
GDP from the final expenditure
The way GDP is formed by underlying components in the so-called expenditure approach. In this approach the components are consumption by households, consumption by the general government, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports, minus imports. Consumption, fixed capital formation and changes in inventories add up to the so-called national final expenditure. By adding exports final expenditure is obtained. Intermediate consumption, goods and services used upon production, is not part of final expenditure.
Value at current prices
The values are expressed at prices of the reporting period. Alternatively, values may be expressed at constant prices. In this case, prices of a reference period are used.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
Total
Households and NPISHs
Consumption expenditure by households and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Not all expenses made by households are seen as consumptive, households may invest as well. These investments mainly concern the purchase of houses and substantial costs on maintenance. Small costs on maintenance, indoor painting and the purchase of furniture is classified as consumption. This also applies to the purchase of cars and car maintenance.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Value at prices of 2015
The values are expressed at prices of the reference period 2015 by taking account of inflation. Alternatively, values may be expressed at prices of the reporting period.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
Total
Households and NPISHs
Consumption expenditure by households and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Not all expenses made by households are seen as consumptive, households may invest as well. These investments mainly concern the purchase of houses and substantial costs on maintenance. Small costs on maintenance, indoor painting and the purchase of furniture is classified as consumption. This also applies to the purchase of cars and car maintenance.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Volume changes on previous year
The weighted average of the changes in the quantity and quality of the components of a certain goods or service transaction or balancing item, annual percentage changes.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
Total
Households and NPISHs
Consumption expenditure by households and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Not all expenses made by households are seen as consumptive, households may invest as well. These investments mainly concern the purchase of houses and substantial costs on maintenance. Small costs on maintenance, indoor painting and the purchase of furniture is classified as consumption. This also applies to the purchase of cars and car maintenance.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.
Price indices
The weighted average of the price changes of the components of a certain variable. Deflators relative to the reference year 2015.
National final expenditure
The sum of the consumption of households and the government, gross fixed capital formation and changes in inventories.
Final consumption expenditure
Expenditure on goods or services that are used for the direct satisfaction of individual or collective needs. Expenses may be made at home or abroad, but they are always made by resident institutional units, that is households or institutions residing in the Netherlands. By definition only households, non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs) and government institutions consume. Enterprises do not: expenses they make on goods and services are thought to serve production and are therefore classified as intermediate consumption of fixed capital formation. The general government is a special case. The government also has intermediate consumption, just like enterprises. But the output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the general government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. It also contains social transfers in kind. In the Netherlands this mainly concerns health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.
Total
Households and NPISHs
Consumption expenditure by households and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs). Not all expenses made by households are seen as consumptive, households may invest as well. These investments mainly concern the purchase of houses and substantial costs on maintenance. Small costs on maintenance, indoor painting and the purchase of furniture is classified as consumption. This also applies to the purchase of cars and car maintenance.
General government
Consumption expenditure by the general government sector. The output delivered by the government which is not directly paid for, non-market output (like safety), is classified as consumption by the government. It is said that the government 'consumes its own production'. The system of national accounts demands that all that is produced is also consumed (or serves as an investment). By convention, government output is consumed by the government itself. This is not the only consumption by the general government. Purchases by general government of goods and services produced by market producers that are supplied to households as social transfers in kind are part of government consumption as well. Examples of this in the Netherlands are health care bills paid for by the government and an allowance for the rent.

Government output consumed by the government is classified into collective consumption and individual consumption. Collective consumption by the government consists of services for collective consumption that are provided simultaneously to all members of the community. Examples of this are expenses on defense, environmental health or public governance. Individual consumption is made up of expenses that serve only part of the community. This concerns mainly education.