Energy balance sheet; supply, transformation and consumption

Energy balance sheet; supply, transformation and consumption

Energy commodities Periods Energy supply Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) (PJ) Energy supply Indigenous production (PJ) Energy supply Imports (PJ) Energy supply Exports (PJ) Energy supply Net imports (PJ) Energy supply Bunkers (PJ) Energy supply Stock change (PJ) Total energy consumption (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Total energy transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Electricity and CHP transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation input Other transformation input (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Total energy transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Electricity/CHP transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Energy transformation output Other transformation output (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Total net energy transformation (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Net electricity/CHP transformation (PJ) Energy transformation Net energy transformation Net other transformation (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Total (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Iron and steel (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Chemical and petrochemical (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Non-ferrous metals (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Non-metallic minerals (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Transport equipment (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Machinery (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Mining and quarrying (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Food and tobacco (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Paper, pulp and printing (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Wood and wood products (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Construction (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Textile and leather (PJ) Final consumption Final energy consumption Industry (excluding the energy sector) Other industry and non-specified (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Total (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Industry (excluding the energy sector) (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Of which chemical and petrochemical (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Transport (PJ) Final consumption Non-energy use Other sectors (PJ)
Total energy commodities 2023** 2,615.6 880.7 9,922.0 7,655.6 2,266.4 590.6 59.1 2,620.6 4,925.2 847.1 4,078.1 4,548.2 581.9 3,966.3 377.0 265.2 111.8 1,588.9 479.4 28.1 259.5 5.7 20.7 3.4 19.1 4.4 75.4 17.1 2.3 28.5 4.1 11.2 448.5 444.2 432.4 2.7 1.5
Renewable energy 2023** 379.0 404.7 61.0 83.7 -22.7 16.4 13.5 378.4 337.7 278.2 59.5 45.3 45.3 292.4 278.2 14.2 86.0 5.7 0.3 0.0 1.3 1.7 0.4 1.8 0.3
Total wind energy 2023** 105.0 105.0 105.0 105.0 105.0 105.0 105.0 .
Wind energy on shore 2023** 63.4 63.4 63.4 63.4 63.4 63.4 63.4 .
Wind energy off shore 2023** 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 41.6 .
Total solar energy 2023** 73.1 73.1 73.1 72.0 72.0 72.0 72.0 1.2
Ambient energy 2023** 25.8 25.8 25.8 25.8
Total other energy commodities 2023** 81.3 77.2 5.0 0.8 4.2 81.3 80.5 71.8 8.8 80.5 71.8 8.8 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.4
Nuclear energy 2023** 39.0 39.0 39.0 39.0 39.0 39.0 39.0
Energy from other sources 2023** 3.6 3.6 3.6 2.8 0.8 2.0 2.8 0.8 2.0 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.4
Source: CBS.
Explanation of symbols

Dataset is not available.


This table shows the supply, transformation and the consumption of energy in a balance sheet. Energy is released - among other things - during the combustion of for example natural gas, petroleum, hard coal and biofuels. Energy can also be obtained from electricity or heat, or extracted from natural resources, e.g. wind or solar energy. In energy statistics all these sources of energy are known as energy commodities.

The supply side of the balance sheet includes indigenous production of energy, net imports and exports and net stock changes. This is mentioned primary energy supply, because this is the amount of energy available for transformation or consumption in the country.

For energy transformation, the table gives figures on the transformation input (amount of energy used to make other energy commodities), the transformation output (amount of energy made from other energy commodities) and net energy transformation. The latter is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.

Then the energy balance sheet shows the final consumption of energy. First, it refers to the own use and distribution losses. After deduction of these amounts remains the final consumption of energy customers. This comprises the final energy consumption and non-energy use. The final energy consumption is the energy consumers utilize for energy purposes. It is specified for successively industry, transport and other customers, broken down into various sub-sectors. The last form of energy is the non-energy use. This is the use of an energy commodity for a product that is not energy.

Data available:
From 1946.

Status of the figures:
All figures up to and including 2021 are definite. Figures for 2022 and 2023 are revised provisional.

Changes as of June 7th 2024:
Revised provisional figures of 2023 have been added.

Changes as of April 26th 2024:

- Provisional figures of 2023 have been added.

The energy balance has been revised for 2015 and later on a limited number of points. The most important is the following:
1. For solid biomass and municipal waste, the most recent data have been included. Furthermore data were affected by integration with figures for a new, yet to be published StatLine table on the supply of solid biomass. As a result, there are some changes in imports, exports and indigenous production of biomass of a maximum of a few PJ.
2. In the case of natural gas, an improvement has been made in the processing of data for stored LNG, which causes a shift between stock changes, imports and exports of a maximum of a few PJ.
3. Data for final energy consumption of blended biofuels per subsector in transport were incorrectly excluded. These have now been made visible.

Changes as of March 25th 2024:
The energy balance has been revised and restructured. It concerns mainly a different way of dealing with biofuels that are mixed with fossil fuels.

Previously, biofuels mixed with fossil fuels were counted as petroleum crude and products. In the new energy balance, blended biofuels count for renewable energy and petroleum crude and products and the underlying products (such as gasoline, diesel and kerosene) only count the fossil part of mixtures of fossil and biogenic fuels. To make this clear, the names of the energy commodities have been adjusted. The consequence of this adjustment is that part of the energy has been moved from petroleum to renewable. The energy balance remains the same for total energy commodities. The aim of this adjustment is to make the increasing role of blended biofuels in the Energy Balance visible and to better align with the Energy Balances published by Eurostat and the International Energy Agency. Within renewable energy and biomass, pure and blended biofuels are now visible as separate energy commodities.

In addition, the way in which electric road transport is treated has been improved, resulting in an increase in the supply and final consumption of electricity in services by more than 2 PJ in 2021 and 2022.

Changes as of November 14th 2023:
Figures for 2021 and 2022 haven been adjusted.
Figures for the Energy Balance for 2015 to 2020 have been revised regarding the following items:
- For 2109 and 2020 final consumption of heat in agriculture is a few PJ lower and for services a few PJ higher. This is the result of improved interpretation of available data in supply of heat to agriculture.
- During the production of geothermal heat by agriculture natural gas is produced as by-product. Now this is included in the energy balance. The amount increased from 0,2 PJ in 2015 to 0,7 PJ in 2020.
- There are some improvements in the data for heat in industry with a magnitude of about 1 PJ or smaller.
- There some other improvements, also about 1 PJ or smaller.


Changes as of October 10th 2023:
Energy commodity gas works cokes has been added.
Revised figures for period 1946-1989 have been added.

Changes as of June 15th 2023:
Revised provisional figures of 2022 have been added.

When will new figures be published?
Provisional figures: April of the following year.
Revised provisional figures: June/July of the following year.
Definite figures: December of the second following year.

Description topics

Energy supply
The amount of energy primarily available for consumption in the Netherlands.
Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES)
The amount of energy primarily available for consumption in the Netherlands (imports plus indigenous production and withdrawal from stocks) minus the amount which is not available for consumption (exports and bunkers).
Indigenous production
The capture or extraction of fuels or energy from natural energy flows, the biosphere and natural reserves of fossil fuels within the national territory in a form suitable for use. With biodiesel, biogasoline and biogas, the production of these fuels counts as indigenous production, the biogenic raw materials used for this are not yet considered as energy. Making waste suitable as an energy commodity, for example by burning it in waste incineration plants, also counts as extraction.
Imports
Imports of energy commodities.
Exports
Exports of energy commodities.
Net imports
Imports of energy commodities minus exports of energy commodities.
Bunkers
Delivery of fuels for international shipping and aviation, i.e. ships and aircraft departing from Dutch (air)ports and arriving in foreign (air)ports. In the energy balance sheet bunkers are considered as a form of export and are not included in energy available for consumption in the Netherlands. Bunkers by sector are not known.
Stock change
Changes in stock are calculated as opening stock minus closing stock, in accordance with international energy statistics guidelines. A positive figure means that stocks have decreased, and the supply of energy has thus increased. A negative figure means the opposite: an increase in stocks and a decrease in consumption.
Total energy consumption
The amount of energy used by companies, households and transport in the Netherlands. Energy can be used
- for transformation into other energy commodities, this is input minus the energy produced.
- as final consumption.

Total energy consumption =
Total net energy transformation + total own use + distribution losses + total final consumption.
Energy transformation
Transformation of one energy commodity into another. This may be a transformation from a fuel into heat or power. It may also be a physical processing of one fuel into another, like the transformation of crude oil into motor gasoline.
Energy transformation input
Total energy transformation input
The amount of energy used to produce other energy commodities. This may be a transformation from a fuel into heat or power. It may also be a physical processing of one fuel into another, like the transformation of crude oil into motor gasoline.

Total energy transformation input is the sum of:
- Electricity and CHP transformation input
- Other transformation input.
Electricity and CHP transformation input
The amount of energy used for the production of:
- electricity only,
- electricity and useful heat, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat is in the form of steam or warm water.
Other transformation input
The amount of energy used for the production of:
- fuel from another fuel, e.g. use of crude oil as feedstock for the production of petroleum products, like motor gasoline.
- heat only, i.e. at companies supplying heat to another company. Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Energy transformation output
Total energy transformation output
The amount of energy transformed from another energy commodity. This may be heat or power made from another fuel. It may also be the production of a fuel by a physical processing of another fuel, e.g. production of motor gasoline from crude oil.

Total energy transformation output is the sum of:
- Electricity/CHP transformation output
- Other transformation output
Electricity/CHP transformation output
The production of heat and power through electricity and CHP transformation.
Includes production of:
- electricity only
- electricity and useful heat combined, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Other transformation output
The production of energy from other transformations.
Includes:
- hard coal and oil products made from other fuels, e.g. production of petroleum products like motor gasoline from crude oil.
- heat of companies supplying heat to another company. Heat has the form of steam or warm water.
Excludes heat from CHP.
Net energy transformation
Total net energy transformation
The difference between transformation input and transformation output.

Total net energy transformation is the sum of:
- Net electricity/CHP transformation
- Net other transformation.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and hard coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Net electricity/CHP transformation
Input minus output of energy transformation into:
- electricity only,
- electricity and useful heat, also known as combined heat and power (CHP). Heat has the form of steam or warm water.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and hard coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Net other transformation
Input minus output of energy transformation into:
- another fuel, e.g. production of hard coal and petroleum products.
- heat only, i.e. at companies supplying heat to another company. Excludes use for CHP transformation.

For primary energy commodities, like natural gas and hard coal, net transformation is always positive. For secondary energy commodities, like electricity or motor gasoline it is always negative. Obviously, the output for these commodities is higher than the input. For the total of energy commodities, this is the amount of energy lost during the transformation of energy commodities.
Final consumption
Final energy consumption
Final consumption of energy. No useful energy commodity remains.

Examples are the combustion of natural gas in boilers, household electricity consumption and the consumption of motor fuels for transport.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Industry (excluding the energy sector)
- Transport
- Other sectors
Industry (excluding the energy sector)
Companies in the sector industry (excluding the energy sector) in the Netherlands.
The sector industry is companies in mining and quarrying, manufacturing and construction.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Iron and steel
- Chemical and petrochemical
- Non-ferrous metals
- Non-metallic minerals
- Transport equipment
- Machinery
- Mining and quarrying
- Food and tobacco
- Paper, pulp and printing
- Wood and wood products
- Construction
- Textile and leather
- Other industry and non-specified
Iron and steel
This category is made up of the categories:
241 Manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferro-alloys
242 Manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings of steel
243 Other first processing of steal
2451 Casting of iron
2452 Casting of steel
Chemical and petrochemical
Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals

This category is made up of the categories:
20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Non-ferrous metals
This category is made up of the categories:
244 Manufacture of basic precious and other non-ferrous metals
2453 Casting of light metals
2454 Casting of other non-ferrous metals
Non-metallic minerals
Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products.
Transport equipment
Manufacture of transport equipment
This category is made up of the categories:
29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers
30 Manufacture of other transport equipment
Machinery
This category is made up of the categories:
25 Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
26 Manufacture of computers, electronic and optical products
27 Manufacture of electrical equipment
28 Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.
Mining and quarrying
Includes 099 support activities for other mining and quarrying.
Food and tobacco
Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco

This category is made up of the categories:
10 Manufacture of food products
11 Manufacture of beverages
12 Manufacture of tobacco products
Paper, pulp and printing
Manufacture of paper and paper products; printing and reproduction

This category is made up of the categories:
17 Manufacture of paper and paper products
18 Printing and reproduction of recorded media
Wood and wood products
Manufacture of wood and of products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials
Construction
Including mobile equipment on own premises. Excludes transport on public road.
Textile and leather
Manufacture of textiles and textile products and of leather and leather products

This category is made up of the categories:
13 Manufacture of textile
14 Manufacture of wearing apparel
15 Manufacture of leather, products of leather and footwear
Other industry and non-specified
Manufacture of rubber and plastic products, manufacture of furniture, other industry plus industry (excluding the energy sector) non-specified. For further break down see "Energy balance sheet; supply and consumption, sector".
Non-energy use
Use of an energy commodity for a product that is not energy. The energy used for the production process remains in the product. E.g. use of oil for the production of plastics, or natural gas for fertilisers.
Total
This category is made up of the categories:
- Industry (excluding the energy sector)
- Transport
- Other sectors
Industry (excluding the energy sector)
Companies in the sector industry (excluding the energy sector) in the Netherlands.
The sector industry is companies in mining and quarrying, manufacturing and construction.

Excludes transport outside own premises.
Of which chemical and petrochemical
Manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals

This category is made up of the categories:
20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
21 Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Transport
All passenger and freight transport by rail, road, water and air.

Excludes transport on own premises, fishing, agriculture and mobile equipment.
Other sectors
Non-energy consumption of services, households, agriculture, fishing and other.

Excludes transport outside own premises.

Natural gas, non-energy use

To cope with differences in demand for natural gas in summer and winter there is a need for storage of natural gas.

An empty gas field could be adapted to be used as underground storage for natural gas (UGS). For this purpose a certain pressure is needed to facilitate quick extraction of stored natural gas.

The natural gas that has been injected in the empty field to raise the pressure is called cushion gas. This cushion gas is not part of natural gas as stocks, because it stays in the storage during the entire life time of the UGS.

The amount of natural gas injected in the field to be used as cushion gas is reflected in the energy balance sheet as part of non-energy use of natural gas.