This table presents an overview of the revenues of the environmental taxes and fees. The government charges several taxes and fees to support and finance environmental policy.
The revenues of environmental taxes and fees can be attributed by taxpayer, distinguishing private households, industries and non-residents.
The above mentioned revenues of environmental taxes and fees are presented in the following variables:
-value in current prices, million euros.
Data available from: 1995
Status of the figures:
Figures for 2020 and 2021 are provisional. The revenues of environmental taxes and fees data are consistent in time and in compliance with the Dutch national accounts.
Changes as of 21 November 2022:
Data for 2021 have been added. Proceeds from the emission permits under the EU-ETS are shown in a separate column. They are no longer added to the energy tax on electricity and gas use.
When will new figures be published?
New figures are published annually around October.
- Total environmental taxes and fees
- Environmental tax revenues
- Revenues of taxes that aim to reduce environmentally damaging activities through a price increase. The revenues of these taxes flow into the general budget and are not dedicated to financing environmental measures. Examples of environmental taxes are excise duties on petrol, motor vehicle tax, energy tax and tax on passenger cars and motorcycles.
- Total environmental tax revenues
- Environmental taxes on products
- The following product-related taxes are environmental taxes: tax on groundwater, tap water, waste, petrol, energy and packaging. These come under the environmentally based tax act (Wet belastingen op milieugrondslag).
- Waste tax
- Waste tax is charged for waste dumped in landfills. Its objective is to stimulate the most environmentally friendly way of waste processing. Waste tax is one of the product-related taxes that come under the environmentally based taxes.
- Fuel tax
- Tax charged on businesses extracting, producing or importing coal, and subsequently use or supply them as fuel. Its objective is to reduce environmental pollution and energy use. The tax is not charged on coal used to generate electricity. Since 2004 fuel tax has been largely integrated in the energy tax and the excise duties on mineral oils. It still exists for coal. Fuel tax is one of the product-related taxes that come under the environmentally based taxes.
- Tax on electricity and gas use
- Tax charged for the use of energy (gas, electricity and certain oil products). The energy tax is one of the product-related taxes that come under the environmentally based taxes. As of 2004 energy tax is the new name for regulating energy tax (REB). Since 2004 fuel tax has been largely integrated in the energy tax.
- Emission allowances
- Emission allowances consist of government revenues from the auctioning of emission permits for the EU Emission Trading System (EU ETS). Companies that emit large amounts of CO2 are obliged to participate and have to surrender an emission allowance for every tonne of CO2 they emit. The Dutch government receives revenues from auctioning of ETS permits since 2011, but the system has been around for longer. The total of emission allowances is in line with the government figures from the National Accounts. The use of emission allowances per industry is based on the balance of the number of allowances surrendered and allowances received for free. Participating companies receive part of the allowances for free to compensate for the 'carbon leakage’ effect, the rest they have to buy on the market. For practical reasons, an average price was used. Actual costs for companies may differ because costs and revenues from emission allowance trading have not been taken into account.
- Tap water and groundwater taxes
- Tap water tax:
The Netherlands has a tax on tap water. The tax is paid by business and households whose water is supplied through waterworks, regardless of whether it is of drinking water quality. Its objective is to reduce water use. The tax on tap water is one of the product-related taxes that come under the environmentally based taxes.
Tax charged for the abstraction of fresh groundwater from the soil, through a construction as meant in the Water act. The tax is paid by water companies, agricultural holdings and manufacturers, for well point drainage and by private individuals abstracting large quantities of water, for example for a swimming pool. Abstractions for certain goals as well as small abstractions are exempted for the tax. The groundwater tax is charged with the intention to reduce groundwater abstraction. The tax encourages the economic use of depletable resources. The tax on groundwater is one of the product-related taxes that come under the environmentally based taxes.
- Tax on packaging
- Tax charged to the producers or importers of the packaging or packages products. Its objectives are to reflect the degree of environmental pollution of packaging in the market price, to reduce the volume of packaging used and to bring about change in the kinds of packaging materials used. The tax on packaging is one of the product-related taxes that come under the environmentally based taxes. It came into effect on 1 January 2008.
- Flight tax
- Tax charged on air passengers leaving from an airport in the Netherlands. This tax is charged to the operator of the airport. The tax came into effect on 1 July 2008 and was abolished on 1 July 2009.
- Mobility tax
- Tax levied on mobility and transport could also be considered environmental taxes. Examples are taxes on petrol and other mineral oils, motor vehicle tax and the tax on passenger cars and motorcycles. These taxes do not come under the environmentally based taxes.
- Excise duties
- Excise duties on petrol and other mineral oils
Consumer tax levied on petrol and on other mineral oils such as diesel, LPG, oil fuel and methane.
- Tax on passenger cars and motorcycles
- One off tax charged to the first person who registers a vehicle (passenger car, delivery van, motorcycle) at the RDW (Road Traffic Agency).
- Motor vehicle tax
- Tax on the possession of a passenger car, delivery van, motorcycle, truck and on driving busses.
- Manure surplus tax
- Charged to businesses producing manure above the allowed quantities and to business supplying manure. There have been various kinds of tax since the late 1980s. The revenues are not used to solve the manure issue but go to the general budget. The manure surplus tax is therefore seen as an environmental tax not an environmental fee. The revenue from the phosphate reduction plan is included as from 2017.
- Environmental fees revenues
- Environmental fees
Fees to finance specific environmental measures by the government. Examples of environmental fees are sewerage charges, fees on water pollution, noise tax civil aviation, groundwater fee and fees on after-care of refuse dumps.
- Total environmental fees revenues
- Waste collection fee
- The waste collection fee reimburses municipalities for the costs of regularly collecting and processing domestic waste. It has to be paid by the users of a property.
Entrepreneurs pay for the collection of industrial waste. The revenues of both types of waste collection cover the costs of collecting and processing domestic and industrial waste.
- Noise tax civil aviation
- Based on the Aviation Law civil aviation pays for the use of airports. The revenue is used by the central government to finance measures to combat noise nuisance around airports. This may include insulation or demolition of dwellings around airports.
- Fees on groundwater and refuse dumps
- Fees on groundwater and after-care of refuse dumps
Provinces charge for the extraction of groundwater. Holders of a registered pumping installation must pay this provincial tax. It is mostly paid by business (industries and drinking water companies) abstraction large quantities of groundwater. The revenues cover the costs of research, and groundwater management. It is also use to compensate for damages.
Fees on after-care of refuse dumps:
Provinces are charged with the eternal after-care of landfills where the dumping of waste ended before 1 September 1996. They can charge the operators of these refuse dumps to finance this after-care.
- Sewerage charges
- Municipalities levy sewerage charges to finance the collection, transport and processing of domestic waste water, industrial waste water and rain water.
Users of real estate from which waste water is transported through the sewer pay the charge. Dutch municipalities had a choice of what kind of sewerage charge to levy until 1 January 2010. Since then there is a single charge.
- Fees on water pollution
- Charged on the drainage of waste to the sewer or a purification installation. The revenue is used to finance the costs of purifying waste water by the Water Boards.